Biotechnology – Lab Equipment 10.01: Describe the proper name of, and use for, common biotechnology laboratory equipment
Laboratory Equipment - Supplies • Autoclave • Centrifuge – Microcentrifuge • Micropipette • Compound Light Microscope • Incubator • Water Bath • Hot Plate • Petri Dish • Agarose Gel - Agar • Graduated Cylinder • Shaker • Gel Electrophoresis Chamber • Gel Electrophoresis Power Source • White Light Box • Centrifuge Tubes • Pipette Tips • Inoculating Tube • DNA Loading Dye • Buffer
Laboratory Equipment • Autoclave • Chamber that uses high levels of heat and pressure to sterilize instruments and materials • Destroys harmful organisms and pathogens • One of the simplest looks a great deal like a pressure cooker. It is a large pot with a gauge on top and bolts that fasten the top to the pot. • The idea behind this is that water inside a pressurized container can be heated above the boiling point. It will only reach 212°F (100°C) in an open container. However, in a pressurized autoclave, the water will reach much higher temperatures.
Laboratory Equipment • Centrifuge • instrument used to isolate solids (in the form of a small pellet) from a solution. • This is done by spinning closed containers of the mixture very quickly around a fixed, central point. The centrifugal force generated by this motion forces the denser material in the suspension against the walls of the container • a. Utilizes very small tubes to hold solution.
Laboratory Equipment • Micropipette • instrument used to measure and extract very small amounts of liquid from a solution. • a. Different versions measure to different levels of accuracy, but usually to the nearest uL (micro Liter). • b. Often used to hand small amounts of solution needed in DNA labs.
Laboratory Equipment • Compound Light Microscope • the most common and versatile microscope in agricultural research labs. • a. Uses a light source in combination with a variety of lenses to magnify images usually up to no more than 200x.
Laboratory Equipment • Incubator • sealed chamber with controls to manage temperature (and sometimes humidity)- used for the culture of microorganisms.
Laboratory Equipment • Water Bath • vessel that uses water to heat or maintain a constant temperature of laboratory materials or equipment • Often used to heat or thaw fragile biological substances including semen
Laboratory Equipment • Hot Plate • instrument that applies direct heat to glassware containing laboratory solutions. • Coil models (like stove tops) are dangerous- • newer models have ceramic tops and often integrated magnetic stirrers.
Laboratory Equipment • Petri Dish • type of glass or plastic shallow round dish with a close fitting lid • most well known for holding a culture medium upon which cells, bacteria, and viruses can be grown and studied
Laboratory Equipment • Agarose Gel – Agar • a substance that is used in science for gel electrophoresis • The medium is composed of a purified agarose powder that has been boiled in a buffer solution and then cooled into a gel.
Laboratory Equipment • Graduated Cylinder • a measuring instrument for measuring fluid volume; a glass container (cup or cylinder or flask) whose sides are marked with or divided into amounts
Laboratory Equipment • Shaker • used to mix or agitate small volumes of solution, often prior to placement in a centrifuge.
Laboratory Equipment • Gel Electrophoresis Chamber • During DNA electrophoresis DNA and restriction enzymes are inserted into the wells of a agarose gel. • The agarose gel is then placed into a electrophoresis chamber along with a buffer (the buffer keeps the DNA fragments soluble in water). The electrophoresis chamber has a electrical charge running through it that carries the DNA fragments through the gel
Laboratory Equipment • Gel Electrophoresis Power Source • The actual power source that sends an electric charge through the chamber, causing the DNA to run and break into smaller visible fragments
Laboratory Equipment • White Light Box • A UV light box that is used under a DNA gel in order to better determine and detect DNA fragments
Laboratory Equipment • Centrifuge Tubes • A tapered and specially-engineered test tube specifically for centrifuge work, designed to resist the high G-forces induced by the centrifugal forces. • They are mainly used in medical work to centrifuge human blood for test purposes
Laboratory Equipment • Pipette Tips • Disposable tips used to protect the micropipetter from contamination • These tips are used and disposed of after EACH use in order to prevent contamination and reduce clean up and sterilization
Laboratory Equipment • Inoculating Tube – Loop • is a simple tool used mainly by microbiologists to retrieve an inoculum from a culture of microorganisms. The loop is used in the cultivation of microbes on plates by transferring inoculum for streaking.
Laboratory Equipment • DNA Loading Dye • First, loading dye is meant to help weigh down the DNA, so that it can sink into the bottom of the wells and not float in the buffer solution • loading dye moves more quickly than the actual DNA parts so it is an indicator to when to turn off the power on the electrophoresis chamber • The dye also makes the DNA visible to the naked eye, giving it a purplish color, and making it easier to work with.
Biotechnology – Lab Equipment 10.02: Demonstrate approved safety practices while conducting scientific experiments in a biotechnology laboratory.
Use of Laboratory Equipment • 1. A graduated cylinder is used to measure the volume of liquids. Readings should always be taken at the MENISCUS, at the lowest part of the curve. • 2. When using a water bath to thaw semen straws, the bath should be heated to 99° F and the straws submersed for 45 seconds immediately upon removal from the storage tank.
Use of Laboratory Equipment • 3. To avoid air bubbles and extract the correct amount of solution utilizing a micropipette, the tip must be completely submerged in the solution. • 4. Proper use of a centrifuge requires that the instrument be balanced. This can be accomplished by placing and equal number of tubes directly across from each other in the instrument.
Laboratory Equipment Safety • 1. Check all gauges & valves before using an autoclave. Never leave equipment unattended while running, as high temperatures and pressure can be dangerous. • 2. When culturing bacteria, it is important that the incubator remains closed, and the plates tightly sealed.
Biotechnology – Lab Equipment 10.03: Prepare records, presentations, and reports detailing scientific research, experiments and labs utilizing computer technology.
Logging Scientific Data • 1. Most easily accomplished in a database program ex: Microsoft Excel • 2. Abilities include: • a. Easy input of large amounts of data in table form • b. Quick manipulation of data including; sorting, labeling, and the creation of charts / graphs. • c. Can handle both qualitative & quantitative data.
Publishing Scientific Findings • 1. Word processors are usually used to prepare scientific reports- ex: Microsoft Word or Apple Works. • 2. Abilities include: • a. Allow quick entry and manipulation of large amounts of text. • b. Easy import of graphics and charts from other programs. • c. Ability to include hyperlinks and export layout to html.
Presenting Research Findings • 1. Accomplished in a specialized presentation program- ex: Microsoft PowerPoint or Apple Keynote. • 2. Abilities include: • a. Easy display of text points (bullets), graphics, charts and even video. • b. Highly visual and interactive method for the presentation of research findings. • c. Animation and sound can be used for increased emphasis.