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Chapter 6 Learning and Performance Management

Chapter 6 Learning and Performance Management

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Chapter 6 Learning and Performance Management

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  1. Chapter 6Learning and Performance Management 1 Describe behavioral theories of learning. 2 Describe social and cognitive theories of learning. 3 Explain how goal-setting can be used to direct learning and performance. 4 Define performance and identify the tools used to measure it. 5 Explain the importance of performance feedback and how it can be delivered effectively. 6 Identify ways managers can reward performance. 7 List several strategies for correcting poor performance. Learning Outcomes © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  2. Learning Outcome 1 Describe three behavioral theories of learning. © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  3. Definition of Learning a change in behavior acquired through experience © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  4. Classical Conditioning – Modifying behavior so that a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus and elicits an unconditioned response Operant Conditioning – Modifying behavior through the use of positive or negative consequences following specific behaviors Conditioning © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  5. Positive Consequences Results of a behavior that a person finds attractive or pleasurable NegativeConsequences Results of a behavior that a person finds unattractive or aversive Positive and Negative Consequences © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  6. Reinforcement, Punishment, and Extinction Reinforcement – the attempt to develop or strengthen desirable behavior by either bestowing positive consequences or withholding negative consequences Punishment – the attempt to eliminate or weaken undesirable behavior by either bestowing negative consequences or withholding positive consequences Extinction – the attempt to weaken a behavior by attaching no consequences to it © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  7. Reinforcement and Punishment Strategies © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  8. Learning Outcome 2 Describe social and cognitive theories of learning. © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  9. Bandura’s Social Learning Theory Prior Experiences Behavior Models Task-Specific Self-Efficacy – an individual’s beliefs and expectancies about his or her ability to perform a specific task effectively Persuasion from Others Assessment of Current Physical & Emotional Capabilities © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  10. Learning and Personality Differences © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Source: O. Kroeger and J. M. Thuesen, Type Talk: The 16 Personality that Determine How We Live, Love, and Work (New York: Dell Publishing Co., 1989).

  11. Beyond the Book:Knowledge Management In theory, knowledge management facilitates information distribution throughout an organization to increase performance. Knowledge-management solutions may produce successful initial results while generating unforeseen problems in the long term (e.g. overreliance on databases for problem-solving). © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  12. Learning Outcome 3 Explain how goal-setting can be used to direct learning and performance. © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  13. Goals help crystallize the sense of purpose and mission essential to success at work. Goal Setting at Work the process of establishing desired results that guide and direct behavior © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  14. Specific Measurable Effective Goals Attainable Realistic Characteristics of Effective Goals S M A R T Time-Bound © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  15. Goal Level and Task Performance High Low Difficult goals Task Performance Easy goals Low High Goal Level © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  16. Increase work motivation and task performance Reduce role stress associated with conflicting or confusing situations Improve accuracy and validity of performance evaluation Goal-Setting Functions © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  17. Increase Work Motivation and Task Performance • Employee participation • Supervisory commitment • Useful performance feedback © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  18. Reduce Role Stress Reduce role stress associated with conflicting and confusing expectations • Clarify task-role expectations communicated to employees • Improve communication between managers and employees © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  19. Improve Performance Evaluation Management by Objectives (MBO) –a goal-setting program based on interaction and negotiation between employees and managers • Articulates what to do • Determines how to do it © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  20. Learning Outcome 4 Define performance and identify the tools used to measure it. © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  21. Performance Management a process of defining, measuring, appraising, providing feedback on, and improving performance © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  22. Performance Management Process Define performance in behavioral terms Measure and assess performance Feedback for goal setting and planning Improved Performance © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  23. How Is Performance Measured? Performance appraisal – the evaluation of a person’s performance • Provides feedback to employees • Identifies employees’ developmental needs • Decides promotions and rewards • Decides demotions and terminations • Develops information about the organization’s selection and placement decisions © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  24. Actual and Measured Performance Actual Performance Measured Performance True Assessment © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  25. Performance overlooked by evaluator Evaluator’s situational factors Disagreement Employee’s temporary personal factors Unreliability True Assessment Deficiency Invalidity Poorly defined task performance Actual and Measured Performance Actual Performance Measured Performance © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  26. Learning Outcome 5 Explain the importance of performance feedback and how it can be delivered effectively. © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  27. Communicating Performance Feedback • Refer to specific verbatim statements and observable behaviors • Focus on changeable behaviors • Both supervisor and employee should plan and organize before the session • Begin with something positive © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  28. 360-Degree Feedback A process of self-evaluation and evaluations by a manager, peers, direct reports, and possibly customers © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  29. Self Evaluation Manager Evaluation Customer Evaluation Feedback Peer Evaluation Reports 360o Feedback © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  30. Develop People and Enhance Careers • [Supervisor should] • Coach and develop employees • Be vulnerable and open to challenge • Maintain a position of responsibility • Listen empathetically • Encourage employee to talk about hope and aspirations • ] • [Employee should] • Take responsibility for growth and development • Challenge supervisor about future development • Express individual preferences and goals © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  31. Effective Appraisal Systems [Key Characteristics] • Validity • Reliability • Responsiveness • Flexibility • Equitableness © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  32. Learning Outcome 6 Identify ways managers can reward performance. © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  33. Organizations get the performance they reward, not the performance they say they want. © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  34. Individual or Team Rewards? • Individual rewards • foster independent behavior • may lead to creative thinking and novel solutions • encourage competitive striving within a work team • Team rewards • emphasize cooperation and joint efforts • emphasize sharing information, knowledge, and expertise

  35. Learning Outcome 7 List several strategies for correcting poor performance. © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  36. Correcting Poor Performance Identify primary cause or responsibility Determine problem’s source Develop corrective plan of action © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  37. Attribution in Organizations Attribution Theory – explains how individuals pinpoint the causes of their own and others’ behavior Consensus – the extent to which peers in the same situation behave the same way © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  38. Attribution in Organizations, cont. Distinctiveness –the degree to which the person behaves the same way in other situations Consistency – the frequency of a particular behavior over time © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  39. Information Cues and Attributions © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  40. Information Cues and Attributions © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  41. Attribution Model • Information cues • Consensus • Consistency • Distinctiveness Perceived source of responsibility • Attribution of poor performance • Internal causes • External causes Observation of poor performance Behavior in response to attribution © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  42. Mentoring a work relationship that encourages development and career enhancement for people moving through the career cycle © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  43. Mentoring Phases 4 PHASES • initiation • cultivation • separation • redefinition © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  44. Beyond the Book:Mentoring Misfires Mentoring initiatives don’t always pan out according to plan. Potential snags: mentee-mentor mismatches, awkward or forced mentoring relationships, and mentors with no stake in their mentee’s future. Sometimes the best mentoring relationships are those that form naturally, apart from “official” programs. © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.