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Chapter 6 Learning and Performance Management. 1 Describe behavioral theories of learning. 2 Describe social and cognitive theories of learning. 3 Explain how goal-setting can be used to direct learning and performance. 4 Define performance and identify the tools used to measure it.

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chapter 6 learning and performance management

Chapter 6Learning and Performance Management

1 Describe behavioral theories of learning.

2 Describe social and cognitive theories of learning.

3 Explain how goal-setting can be used to direct learning and performance.

4 Define performance and identify the tools used to measure it.

5 Explain the importance of performance feedback and how it

can be delivered effectively.

6 Identify ways managers can reward performance.

7 List several strategies for correcting poor performance.

Learning Outcomes

© 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

learning outcome
Learning Outcome

1

Describe three behavioral theories of learning.

© 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

definition of learning
Definition of Learning

a change in behavior acquired through experience

© 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

conditioning
Classical Conditioning – Modifying behavior so that a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus and elicits an unconditioned response

Operant Conditioning – Modifying behavior through the use of positive or negative consequences following specific behaviors

Conditioning

© 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

positive and negative consequences

Positive Consequences

Results of a behavior that a person finds attractive or pleasurable

NegativeConsequences

Results of a behavior that a person finds unattractive or aversive

Positive and Negative Consequences

© 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

reinforcement punishment and extinction
Reinforcement, Punishment, and Extinction

Reinforcement – the attempt to develop or strengthen desirable behavior by either bestowing positive consequences or withholding negative consequences

Punishment – the attempt to eliminate or weaken undesirable behavior by either bestowing negative consequences or withholding positive consequences

Extinction – the attempt to weaken a behavior by attaching no consequences to it

© 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

reinforcement and punishment strategies
Reinforcement and Punishment Strategies

© 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

learning outcome8
Learning Outcome

2

Describe social and cognitive theories of learning.

© 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

bandura s social learning theory
Bandura’s Social Learning Theory

Prior Experiences

Behavior Models

Task-Specific Self-Efficacy –

an individual’s beliefs and expectancies about his or her ability to perform a specific task effectively

Persuasion from Others

Assessment of

Current Physical &

Emotional Capabilities

© 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

learning and personality differences
Learning and Personality Differences

© 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Source: O. Kroeger and J. M. Thuesen, Type Talk: The 16 Personality that Determine How We Live, Love, and Work (New York: Dell Publishing Co., 1989).

slide11

Beyond the Book:Knowledge Management

In theory, knowledge management facilitates information distribution throughout an organization to increase performance.

Knowledge-management solutions may produce successful initial results while generating unforeseen problems in the long term (e.g. overreliance on databases for problem-solving).

© 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

learning outcome12
Learning Outcome

3

Explain how goal-setting can be used to direct learning and performance.

© 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

goal setting at work

Goals help

crystallize the sense of purpose and mission

essential to success at work.

Goal Setting at Work

the process of establishing desired results that guide and direct behavior

© 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

characteristics of effective goals

Specific

Measurable

Effective

Goals

Attainable

Realistic

Characteristics of Effective Goals

S

M

A

R

T

Time-Bound

© 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

goal level and task performance
Goal Level and Task Performance

High

Low

Difficult goals

Task Performance

Easy goals

Low High

Goal Level

© 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

goal setting functions

Increase work motivation and task performance

Reduce role stress associated with conflicting or confusing situations

Improve accuracy and validity of performance evaluation

Goal-Setting Functions

© 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

increase work motivation and task performance
Increase Work Motivation and Task Performance
  • Employee participation
  • Supervisory commitment
  • Useful performance feedback

© 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

reduce role stress
Reduce Role Stress

Reduce role stress associated with conflicting and confusing expectations

  • Clarify task-role expectations communicated to employees
  • Improve communication between managers and employees

© 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

improve performance evaluation
Improve Performance Evaluation

Management by Objectives (MBO) –a goal-setting program based on interaction and negotiation between employees and managers

  • Articulates what to do
  • Determines how to do it

© 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

learning outcome20
Learning Outcome

4

Define performance and identify the tools used to measure it.

© 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

performance management
Performance Management

a process of defining, measuring, appraising, providing feedback on, and improving performance

© 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

performance management process
Performance Management Process

Define performance in behavioral terms

Measure and assess performance

Feedback for goal setting and planning

Improved Performance

© 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

how is performance measured
How Is Performance Measured?

Performance appraisal – the evaluation of a person’s performance

  • Provides feedback to employees
  • Identifies employees’ developmental needs
  • Decides promotions and rewards
  • Decides demotions and terminations
  • Develops information about the organization’s selection and placement decisions

© 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

actual and measured performance
Actual and Measured Performance

Actual

Performance

Measured

Performance

True

Assessment

© 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

actual and measured performance25

Performance

overlooked

by evaluator

Evaluator’s

situational

factors

Disagreement

Employee’s temporary

personal factors

Unreliability

True

Assessment

Deficiency

Invalidity

Poorly defined

task performance

Actual and Measured Performance

Actual

Performance

Measured

Performance

© 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

learning outcome26
Learning Outcome

5

Explain the importance of performance feedback and how it can be delivered effectively.

© 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

communicating performance feedback
Communicating Performance Feedback
  • Refer to specific verbatim statements and observable behaviors
  • Focus on changeable behaviors
  • Both supervisor and employee should plan and organize before the session
  • Begin with something positive

© 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

360 degree feedback
360-Degree Feedback

A process of self-evaluation and evaluations by a manager, peers, direct reports, and possibly customers

© 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

360 o feedback

Self

Evaluation

Manager

Evaluation

Customer

Evaluation

Feedback

Peer

Evaluation

Reports

360o Feedback

© 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

develop people and enhance careers
Develop People and Enhance Careers
  • [Supervisor should]
  • Coach and develop employees
  • Be vulnerable and open to challenge
  • Maintain a position of responsibility
  • Listen empathetically
  • Encourage employee to talk about hope and aspirations
  • ]
  • [Employee should]
  • Take responsibility for growth and development
  • Challenge supervisor about future development
  • Express individual preferences and goals

© 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

effective appraisal systems
Effective Appraisal Systems

[Key Characteristics]

  • Validity
  • Reliability
  • Responsiveness
  • Flexibility
  • Equitableness

© 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

learning outcome32
Learning Outcome

6

Identify ways managers can reward performance.

© 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

slide33

Organizations get the performance they reward,

not the performance they say they want.

© 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

© 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

individual or team rewards
Individual or Team Rewards?
  • Individual rewards
    • foster independent behavior
    • may lead to creative thinking and novel solutions
    • encourage competitive striving within a work team
  • Team rewards
    • emphasize cooperation and joint efforts
    • emphasize sharing information, knowledge, and expertise
learning outcome35
Learning Outcome

7

List several strategies for correcting poor performance.

© 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

correcting poor performance
Correcting Poor Performance

Identify primary cause or responsibility

Determine problem’s source

Develop corrective plan of action

© 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

attribution in organizations
Attribution in Organizations

Attribution Theory – explains how individuals pinpoint the causes of their own and others’ behavior

Consensus – the extent to which peers in the same situation behave the same way

© 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

attribution in organizations cont
Attribution in Organizations, cont.

Distinctiveness –the degree to which the person behaves the same way in other situations

Consistency – the frequency of a particular behavior over time

© 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

information cues and attributions
Information Cues and Attributions

© 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

information cues and attributions40
Information Cues and Attributions

© 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

attribution model
Attribution Model
  • Information cues
  • Consensus
  • Consistency
  • Distinctiveness

Perceived source of responsibility

  • Attribution of poor performance
  • Internal causes
  • External causes

Observation

of poor

performance

Behavior in

response

to attribution

© 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

mentoring
Mentoring

a work relationship that encourages development and career enhancement for people moving through the career cycle

© 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

mentoring phases
Mentoring Phases

4 PHASES

  • initiation
  • cultivation
  • separation
  • redefinition

© 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

slide44

Beyond the Book:Mentoring Misfires

Mentoring initiatives don’t always pan out according to plan. Potential snags: mentee-mentor mismatches, awkward or forced mentoring relationships, and mentors with no stake in their mentee’s future.

Sometimes the best mentoring relationships are those that form naturally, apart from “official” programs.

© 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.