Chapter Outline • Classical Conditioning • Operant Conditioning • Observational Learning
Learning Objectives • Understand the role of stimuli and response in classical conditioning. • Understand how operant behavior is voluntary, goal directed, and controlled by consequences. • Understand the role of reinforcement in learning and behavior. • Understand how learning is influenced by observing others.
Definition of Learning • Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior that results from experience. • Three basic forms of learning: • Classical conditioning • Operant conditioning • Observational learning
Classical Conditioning and Pavlov • Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) was a Russian physiologist and won a Nobel Prize for his work with the digestion in dogs. • He noticed dogs began salivating before food reached their mouths.
Classical Conditioning • Classical conditioning is type of learning in which a neutral stimulus acquires the capacity to elicit a response after being paired with another stimulus that naturally elicits that response. • Unconditioned response (UCR) • Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) • Conditioned response (CR) • Conditioned stimulus (CS)
Figure 6-1: Pavlov’s Apparatus for Studying Classical Conditioning in Dogs
Classical Conditioning and Predicting Events • Acquisition is the initial stage of classical conditioning, during which a previously neutral stimulus begins to acquire the ability to elicit a conditioned response. • Conditioned responses seldom occur at full strength right away, instead, they build gradually.
Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery • Extinction is the gradual weakening and disappearance of the conditioned response when the CS is repeatedly presented without being paired with the US. • Spontaneous recovery is the reappearance of an extinguished response after a period of no exposure to the CS.
Stimuli and Conditioned Response • Stimulus generalization is the tendency for a CR to be elicited by stimulus similar to the CS. • The little Albert experiment: John Watson (1920) used classical conditioning on an 8 month old. He began to generalize fear to white furry objects. • Higher-order conditioning is when a neutral stimulus becomes becomes a CS after being paired with an existing CS.
Operant Conditioning • Operant Conditioning is a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if it is followed by reinforcement and weakened if followed by punishment.
Reinforcement • Reinforcement is a process where a stimulus increases the probability of the behavior that it follows. • Reinforceris any stimulus or event that increases the likelihood that the behavior preceding it will be repeated.
Reinforcers(Slide 1 of 2) • Primary reinforceris naturally reinforcing because it satisfies a biological need (e.g., food, water). • Secondary reinforceris a stimuli that is learned and becomes reinforcing by being associated with primary reinforcers (e.g., stickers).
Reinforcers(Slide 2 of 2) • Positive reinforceris a stimulus that strengthens a response by presenting a pleasant or desired stimulus after a response (e.g., stickers, candy). • Negative reinforceris a stimulus that strengthens a response by removing an aversive or unpleasant stimulus after a response (e.g., a rat pressing a bar to end unpleasant sensation).
Premack Principle • Premack principle is when more preferred activities act as reinforcers for less preferred activities. • For example, doing a chore so you can go to the movies • Can you give an example of a less enjoyable activity you engage in that is a reinforcer for an activity you enjoy?
Punishment • Punishment occurs when a stimulus decreases the probability of the behavior it follows. • Positive punisher: a stimuli that weakens a response by presenting an aversive stimulus after a response. • Negative punisher:a stimuli that weakens a response by removing a positive stimuli after a response.
Guidelines for Using Punishment • Punishment must be prompt, relatively strong, and consistently applied. • Why did Skinner not recommend the use of punishment?
Drawbacks of Punishment • Threats of punishment are made preceding punishment. • Passive aggressiveness can occur after punishment. • Physical punishment may serve as an aggressive model. • Punishment can unexpectedly shape an unintended behavior.
Reinforcement Schedules • Continuous reinforcement schedule • Partial reinforcement schedule • Fixed-ratio reinforcement schedule • Variable-reinforcement schedule • Fixed-interval reinforcement schedule • Variable-interval reinforcement schedule
Observational Learning (Slide 1 of 2) • Observational learning is learning a behavior by observing and imitating the behavior of others. • Observational learning is a central feature of Albert Bandura’s (1986) social learning theory.
Observational Learning (Slide 2 of 2) • We often learn aggressive behaviors through observation. • Violence is often seen on TV and in movies. • Violence is depicted in music lyrics and music videos. • Do you think seeing violence affects people?