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Chapter 1 Major Themes of Anatomy & Physiology Structure and Function Origins of Biomedical Science Scientific Method Human Evolution Nature of Life Homeostasis Anatomy - The Study of Form Observation of surface structure

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chapter 1 major themes of anatomy physiology
Chapter 1Major Themes of Anatomy & Physiology
  • Structure and Function
  • Origins of Biomedical Science
  • Scientific Method
  • Human Evolution
  • Nature of Life
  • Homeostasis
anatomy the study of form
Anatomy - The Study of Form
  • Observation of surface structure
  • Cadaver dissection is cutting & separation of tissues to study their relationships
  • Comparative anatomy is the study of more than one species to analyze evolutionary trends
  • Physical examination
    • palpation, auscultation, percussion
  • Gross anatomy is what is visible with naked eye
  • Histology is examination of cells with microscope
physiology the study of function
Physiology - The Study of Function
  • Study of bodily functions by use of methods of experimental science
  • Comparative physiology involves the study of different species
  • Basis for the development of new drugs and medical procedures
beginnings of medicine
Beginnings of Medicine
  • Physicians in Mesopotamia & Egypt 3000 years ago used herbal drugs, salts & physical therapy
  • Greek physician Hippocrates established a code of ethics & urged physicians to seek causes of disease
  • Aristotle called causes for disease physiologi & said that complex structures are built from simpler parts
  • Galen, physician to the Roman gladiators, saw science as a method of discovery
    • did animal dissections since use of cadavers banned
    • wrote book advising followers to trust their own observation
birth of modern medicine
Birth of Modern Medicine
  • Little advancement during the Middle ages since medicine was taught as dogma with no new ideas
  • Avicenna from Muslim world supported free inquiry over authority
    • wrote The Canon of Medicine, used in medical schools until 16th century
  • Vesalius accurately illustrated gross anatomy in 1543
  • Harvey realized blood flow out from heart & back in 1628
  • Leeuwenhoek invented microscope to look at fabrics (1632-1723)
  • Hooke and Zeiss (1830)developed & improved compound microscope (wrote Micrographia in 1665)
  • Schleiden & Schwann thought that all organisms were composed of cells -- cell theory of 1839
  • Clinical practice was in dismal state
    • bleeding patients to remove toxins, operate with dirty hands, no anesthesia for amputations
living in a revolution
Living in a Revolution
  • Pioneers in establishing the scientific way of thinking occurred in 19th & 20th centuries
    • germ theory of disease
    • mechanisms of heredity & structure of DNA
  • Now, on threshold of modern biomedical science
  • Technology enhanced diagnostic ability & life-support strategies
  • Verge of a genetic revolution due to library of the molecular structure of every human gene
scientific method
Scientific Method
  • Bacon (1561-1626) and Descartes (1596-1650)
    • were not scientists but did invent new habits of scientific thought
      • scientific method as habits of disciplined creativity, careful observations, logical thinking & analysis of observations
      • way of seeking trends & drawing generalizations
  • Convinced governments of England & France to form academies of science that still exist today
  • Scientific way of thinking based on assumptions & methods that are reliable, objective & testable
inductive method
Inductive Method
  • First described by philosopher Francis Bacon
  • Making observations until capable of drawing generalizations and making predictions
    • anatomy is a product of inductive method
  • Proof in science can not go past “proved beyond reasonable doubt”
    • reliable methods of observation
    • tested and confirmed repeatedly
    • not falsified by any credible observation
  • In science, all truth is tentative
hypothetico deductive method
Hypothetico-Deductive Method
  • Physiological knowledge gained by this method
  • Ask a question and formulate a hypothesis -- an educated possible answer
  • Good hypothesis
    • consistent with what is already known
    • capable of being tested and falsified
  • Falsifiability means that certain evidence would prove something wrong
    • if nothing could prove it wrong, it is not a scientific belief
proper experimental design
Proper Experimental Design
  • Sufficient sample size to prevent chance event
  • Control group receiving the same treatment except for the variable being tested
  • Prevention of psychosomatic effects
    • use of placebo in control group
  • Experimenter bias
    • prevented with double-blind study
  • Statistical testing to be sure the difference between groups was not random, but was due to variable being tested
peer review
Peer Review
  • Critical evaluation by other experts in the field
  • Ensures honesty, objectivity & quality in science
facts laws and theories
Facts, Laws and Theories
  • Scientific fact is information that can be independently verified by any trained person
    • iron deficiency leads to anemia
  • Law of nature is a generalization about the way matter and energy behave -- resulting from inductive reasoning & repeated observations
    • first law of thermodynamics is that energy can be converted from one form to another but not destroyed
  • Theory is an explanatory statement that makes predictions and suggests areas for further study
    • sliding filament theory, fluid-mosaic theory, cell theory
human evolution
Human Evolution
  • Charles Darwin proposed the theory of natural selection to explain how species originate and change through time
    • On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859)
    • The Descent of Man (1871) discussed human evolution & our relationships to other animals
  • Changed our view of our origin, our nature & our place in the universe
  • Good understanding of our evolutionary history deepens our understanding of form & function
evolution selection and adaptation
Evolution, Selection, and Adaptation
  • Evolution is change in genetic composition of a population of organisms
    • development of bacterial resistance to antibiotics, new strains of AIDS virus and new species
  • Theory of natural selection
    • some individuals have hereditary advantages (adaptations) enabling them to produce more offspring
    • if they pass these characteristics on it brings about a genetic change in the population (evolution)
    • forces that favor some individuals over others are called selection pressures -- climate, disease, etc.
evidence of human evolution
Evidence of Human Evolution
  • DNA hybridization suggests a difference of only 1.6% in DNA structure between humans & chimpanzees
  • Evolutionary developments help explain some aspects of our anatomy
    • arrector pili muscle in the skin have no use
    • auricularis muscles do not move in most people
  • Evolutionary relationships help us chose animals for biomedical research
    • rats & mice used extensively
life in the trees
Life in the Trees
  • Origin of primates began 60 million years ago
  • Squirrel-sized, insect-eating mammals became arboreal probably due to safety, food supply & lack of competition
    • shoulder became more mobile (reach any direction)
    • thumbs became opposable to be able to encircle branches with thumb & fingers (prehensile)
    • forward-facing eyes provide (depth perception)
      • judge distances accurately to jump & catch prey
    • color vision to distinguish ripe fruit
    • larger brains & good memory to remember food sources
walking upright
Walking Upright
  • African forest became grassland 5 million years ago
  • Bipedalism (standing & walking on 2 legs) evolved
    • spot predators, carry food or infants
  • Adaptations for bipedalism
    • pelvis, femur, knee, great toe, arch, skull, vertebrae, etc.
  • Australopithecus (2.5mya) gave rise Homo habilis
    • taller, larger brain volume, speech, tool-making
  • Homo erectus (1.1mya) and Homo sapiens (.3mya)
  • Homo sapiens include Neanderthal & Cro-Magnon
what is life
What is Life?
  • Properties that distinguish from nonliving things:
    • organization & cellular composition
    • biochemical composition (DNA, proteins, etc)
    • metabolism is transformation of molecules into others
    • responsiveness is ability to sense & react to stimuli
    • homeostasis is to maintain stable internal environment
    • development is change over time (growth or differentiation)
    • reproduction is producing copies of themselves
    • evolution is genetic change between generations
  • Clinical death is no brain waves for 24 hours
what is a human
What is a Human?

Phylum Chordata

Subphylum Vertebrata

Class Mammalia

Order Primates

Family Hominidae

Genus Homo

Species Homo sapiens

Human classification within the kingdom Animalia.

our chordate characteristics
Our Chordate Characteristics
  • Notochord
    • flexible rod on upper side of body -- replaced by vertebral column during development
  • Dorsal hollow nerve cord
  • Gill pouches
    • bulges in throat region develop into gills in fish & amphibians
  • Postanal tail
    • GI tracts end before end of tail
    • tail in humans visible only in embryo
our vertebrate characteristics
Our Vertebrate Characteristics
  • Subphylum Vertebrata
  • Characteristics of all
    • internal skeleton
    • jointed vertebral (spinal) column
    • well developed brain & sense organs
    • cranium to protect the brain
our mammalian characteristics
Our Mammalian Characteristics
  • Class Mammalia
  • Characteristics of all
    • mammary glands for nourishment of young
    • hair to retain body heat
    • endothermy is ability to generate most of body heat
    • heterodonty is possession of varied types of teeth
    • single lower jawbone provides for better chewing
    • 3 middle ear bones
primate hominid characteristics
Primate & Hominid Characteristics
  • Order Primates
  • Characteristics of all
    • 4 upper and lower incisors for front cutting
    • pair of clavicles (collarbones)
    • only 2 mammary glands
    • pendulous penis, attached only at base
    • forward-facing eyes with stereoscopic vision
    • flat nails in place of claws
    • opposable thumbs
  • Family Hominidae are only bipedal primates
    • Homo sapiens are only surviving species
structure a hierarchy of complexity
Structure - A Hierarchy of Complexity
  • Subatomic particles compose atoms
  • Atoms compose molecules
  • Molecules compose organelles
  • Organelles compose cells
  • Cells compose tissues
  • Tissues compose organs
  • Organs compose organ systems
  • Organ systems compose the organism
  • Hippocrates noted that body normally returns to a state of equilibrium by itself
    • needs to detect the change & oppose it
  • Walter Cannon (1871-1945) coined the term homeostasis indicating stable internal environment
  • Internal environment described as dynamic equilibrium
    • fluctuates within a range around a certain set point
negative feedback and stability
Negative Feedback and Stability
  • Mechanism to keep a variable close to its set point
  • Body senses a change & activates mechanisms to reverse it
negative feedback set point
Negative Feedback, Set Point
  • Room temperature does not stay at set point of 68 degrees -- it only averages 68 degrees
human thermoregulation
Human Thermoregulation
  • Temperature sensing nerve cells in base of brain control shivering, sweating & vasomotor activity
    • vasodilation & vasoconstriction
  • Evaporation of water & heat radiation occur
structures needed for feedback loop
Structures Needed for Feedback Loop
  • Receptor = structure that senses change
    • stretch receptors in heart & large blood vessels send information of an elevated BP to integrator
  • Integrator = control center
    • cardiac center in brainstem that signals heart to slow
  • Effector = structures that carry out commands of the control center
    • heart slows and BP decreases
positive feedback loops
Positive Feedback Loops
  • Self-amplifying cycle in which a physiological change leads to an even greater change in the same direction
  • Normal way of producing changes during birth, blood clotting, protein digestion & generation of nerve signals
  • If temperature rises above 108 degrees
    • metabolic rate increases causing body to produce heat faster still
  • Temperature increases & cycle repeats again
  • Fatal at 113 degrees
review of major themes
Review of Major Themes
  • Unifying principles behind all aspects of human anatomy and physiology
    • cell theory: all structure & function result from the activity of cells
    • homeostasis: maintaining stable conditions within the body
    • evolution: the body is a product of evolution, molded by years of natural selection
    • hierarchy of structure: levels of complexity
    • unity of form and function: physiology can not be separated from anatomy
noninvasive medical imaging
Noninvasive Medical Imaging
  • Radiography
    • x-rays discovered by William Roentgen in 1885
    • penetrate soft tissues of body & darken photographic film on other side of the body
  • Sonography
    • handheld device produces high-frequency ultrasound waves and receives echoes back from internal organs
    • obstetrics uses to locate placenta, evaluate fetal age, position and development
    • used medically in the 1950s but little value until computers could develop differences in echoes
noninvasive medical imaging35
Noninvasive Medical Imaging
  • Computed Tomography (CT scan)
    • low-intensity X rays applied to the body
    • computer analysis produces an image of a slice of the body about as thin as a coin from which a three-dimensional image of the body is constructed
    • tumors, aneurysms, hemorrhages, kidney stones, etc
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
    • magnetic field aligns hydrogen atoms; radio waves realign the atoms; when radio is turned off the atoms give off energy depending on tissue type
    • computer analysis produces a “slice” type image
noninvasive medical imaging36
Noninvasive Medical Imaging
  • Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
    • assesses the metabolic state of a tissue
    • injection of radioactively labeled glucose emits positrons; colliding positrons & electrons give off gamma rays that are analyzed by computer
    • color image which tissue were using glucose at the moment
      • extent of damaged heart tissue
      • activity of brain of neurology patients