Laws in the 21st Century: • Laws in Western societies guarantee the same rights to all persons, whatever their sex, race, ethnic origin, religion or sexual orientation. • These groups had to struggle to win equal rights. • Some groups are still struggling today to win full rights.
Eventswhichled to decolonization and civil rightsmovements The economic crisis: • The stock market crash of 1929 began a severe economic crisis known as the Great Depression. • This crisis lasted for 10 years (throughout the 1930s) What led to this crisis? • Share prices fall on the New York Stock Exchange • Investors panic and want to sell their shares. • No buyers causes value of shares to drop • Companies go bankrupt • Workers lose their jobs • Unemployed people no longer buy goods • More businesses go bankrupt and close • More workers lose their jobs • Because all countries traded with one another, the Depression spread to the entire world.
The end of the Depression: • The end of the Depression coincided* with the beginning of the Second World War in 1939. *To happen at the same time or during the same period • WWII revitalized (boosted) the economies of all the countries that had been affected by the Depression.
The Second World War: • After WW1(1914-18), Germany was forced to sign a treaty at Versailles, near paris, in 1919. • A treaty is a written agreement between 2 or more countries. • The Treaty of Versailles forced the Germans to pay for damages and to do away with military service. • They also had to give up territory in Europe along with all of its colonies.
Consequences of the Depression and the Treaty of Versailles on Germany: • The Depressionhad hit Germany hard becausetheireconomywasdependent on the United States. • Germany felthumilitated by the harsh conditions of the Treaty of Versailles whichhad been set by the Allies. • Germansvoted Adolf Hitler into power. • By doingso, theygotrid of democracy and voted in an authoritariangovernment.
What lead to the Second World War? • Hitler decided to rearm his country. • Rearming his army violated the Treaty of Versailles! • Hitler also invaded Poland in 1939. • As a result, France and the United Kingdom declared war on Germany.
Two opposing camps: the Axis and the Allies: • Axis powers: Germany, Italy, Japan (Authoritarian Governments) • Allied powers: France, UK, USSR (Russia) & U.S.A. (All democratic governments except USSR) • British colonies or former British colonies were forced to support the UK and joined the Allies in defeating the Axis. • Canada, Australia, India, New Zealand and South Africa were former British colonies.
The End of the Second World War: • On August 6, 1945, the United States dropped the world΄s first atomic bomb on the city of Hiroshima, Japan. • Hundreds of thousands were killed and the city was leveled. Why did the Americans do this? • In response to Japanʹs surprise and unjustified attack on Pearl Harbour, Hawaii. (Japan had sunk or damaged many U.S. Navybattleships, cruisers, destroyers, had destroyed 188 U.S. Aircraft, had killed 2,402 men and had wounded 1,282 others.) • An excuse to simply test the Atomic bomb
The creation of the United Nations: • Between 50-60 million people were killed in the Second World War (Mostly civilian). • Cities and a great deal of infrastructure were destroyed (Bridges, railways, roads etc.) • The United Nations is an organization that was set up, in 1945, by nations throughout the world to ensure that a new world war would not occur again.
The UN Charter: • A charter is a document that states a fundamental law. • It reflects the basic values of the democratic world. What was the role or task of the UN Charter? • Its mandate was to encourage peace, security and cooperation throughout the world • To promote respect of human rights • To improve peoples living conditions
The UniversalDeclaration of Human Rights (1948, see page 180): Article 1 • Everyone is born free and equal Article 2 • People should not be discriminated against based on their race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion etc. Article 23 • Everyone has the right to equal pay for equal work.
How diddecolonizationhappen? (See page 184 for more details) CAUSES: • The Great Depression weakened European countries. • The Second World War cause so much damage in Europe that they had to focus on recontructing their cities and infrastructure. • As a result, they began to loss interest in their countries. • Concurrently, people living in the colonies demanded independence from their mother countries. • They felt it was only fair since they helped out their mother countries in the war effort.
The 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights inspired these colonies to demand for independence (We all have the same rights) • Finally, there was the domino effect: The independence of other colonies encouraged others to demand for independence.
Indian Independence: • India was once a British colony since the early 19th century. • In the 1920`s, J. Nehru and M. Gandhi led the struggle for independence. • During WW2, the UK promised India independence in exchange for India`s support in the war effort. • India became an independent country after WW2 with Nehru as Prime Minister.
The decolonization of Africa: • After WW2, France did not tolerate any form of nationist movements (Pro-independence) in its African colonies. • In some regions in Africa, some activists were put in jail or expelled from their countries. • France`s attitude to Madagascar`s attempts to gain independence led to bloodshed.
United Nation`s position on colonization: • The UN believed that colonization had to be brought to an end. • It felt that all people had the right to govern (rule) themselves . This is called self-determination. • In 1945, 750 million people lived in colonized countries. This dropped to under 2 million by 2006.
How did the movement to end racial discrimination arise? • The civil rights movement in the United States: • Although slavery was abolished in 1865, blacks continued to be discriminated against by whites. • Up until the 1950s, the United States still had discriminatory laws : • Blacks could not attend the same schools as whites etc. • Blacks could not marry whites either.
Black Americanswereat a disadvantage: • Infant mortality was higher than whites. • Blacks were more likely to drop out of high school than whites. • The unemployment rate for black was much higher. • Most blacks could not get a loan to buy a house.
Martin Luther King (1929-1968): • He was a Baptist minister. • He was inspired by Gandhi’s non-violence approached to winning civil rights. • He fought for the right to vote, to high-quality jobs and to equality with whites. • He was assassinated in 1968.
Malcolm X and the Black Panthers: • Although people such as Martin Luther preached about gaining civil rights peacefully, other like Malcolm X took violence as a route. • Malcolm X, along with other Black Muslims, did more harm to the civil rights movement than good. • He was shot to death by three black gunmen in 1965.
Creation of Ghettos in Cities:The reality of things… • Although people of different races may work together, they are still very unlikely to live in the same neighbourhoods. What is a ghetto? • An impoverished (poor), neglected, or otherwise disadvantaged residential area of a city, usually troubled by a large amount of crime. • A part of a city, esp. a slum area, occupied by a minority group or groups. • Depending on your race and skin color, you may not be welcomed in that ghetto.
Anti-Apartheid movement in South Africa: • In 1948 a non-white party came into power. • Non-whites could not vote. • This party passed 2 discriminatory laws: • Population Registration Act: This act classified people into racial groups. People had to walk around with ID cards specifying their race. • Group Area Act: Non-whites could had no access to white neighbourhoods. Whites and non-whites could not attend the same schools, hospitals, beaches etc. • This is known as segregation.
Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell Policy in the US Military: • Countries like Canada, Great Britain, Isreal have had great success in letting gay people openly serve in the military. • In 2011, the United States Government abolished its discriminatory Don’t Ask, Don’t tell policy which forced gays who served in the military to stay in the closet. As a result, thousands of gay soldiers either left the military or were forced out. Why did the US finally get rid of this policy? • If you are willing to serve your country and be a patriot then you should be permitted to serve openly in the army and not have to worry about lieing about who you are.
Controversy over Gay Marriage: • Those who are in favor of gay marriage feel that it is important for gays to be able to commit themselves and to have the same benefits and rights as straight people do. • They want their partner to be taken care of in case something happens to them (insurance, inheritance, pension etc.) • Gays care about these issues too. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y3huRVrckY8
Gay rights in Canada are the most advanced in the Americas. • Gay Canadians have most of the same legal rights as straight citizens, and are extended more legal rights than many other nations where homosexuality is legal. • Since 2005, Canada has offered civil marriage rights nationwide to same-sex couples.
What is homophobia? • It refers to an irrational fear, prejudice or discrimination towards gays. • It can take many forms, from name-calling and teasing to serious crimes like assault and murder. • It is most often based on fear and ignorance.
What is Heterosexism? • It is the belief that all people are or should be heterosexual (straight), that other types of sexuality are wrong. • These attitudes are often communicated without people realizing it, through assumptions. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SBuKuA9nHsw How does it affect Lesbians, gays and bisexuals (LGB)? • Fear of rejection by family and friends • Feel guilty, different & not “being normal” • Feel that straights will react negatively or lack understanding
Matthew Shepard Case: • Matthew Wayne Shepard (1976 – 1998) was a young student who was tortured and murdered in Wyoming, in October 1998. • Two men offered Shepard a ride in their car. After a while the two men robbed, pistol-whipped, tortured him and tied him to a fence in a remote, rural area, leaving him to die. • Shepard's murder brought international attention for the need to pass hate crime legislation (laws).
How did the Feminist Movement Arise? • Women had less rights than men • They did not have the right to vote or to be elected into public office. • Feminism is a movement that was organized by women that demanded equal rights with men.
Situation for Women in the early 20th Century: • Women did the childrearing and housekeeping. • Most women only obtained a high school diploma and did not pursue a higher education (CEGEP or university). • Most universities did not accept women; especially in law and medicine where it was strictly reserved for men.
The Right to Vote: • The right to vote began in Great Britain in 1865. • Suffragettes was the name given to women who fought for the right to vote. • How did they win the right? • Disrupted political meetings • Organized marches • Vandalized symbols of masculinity (Men`s only clubs)
At the Epsom Derby, on 4th June 1913, Emily Wilding Davison (1872-1913), a suffragette, gave her life for her cause by throwing herself under King Georges horse.
Claire Kirkland-Casgrain (1924) • First Quebec woman to be elected to the Quebec legislature in 1961. • Quebec`s first woman cabinet minister. • In 1964, she passed a law that allowed a married woman to buy property or borrow money from the bank without her husband`s consent.
The Federation des Femmes du Quebec: • Established in 1966 • Works for the interest of Quebec women • Promotes better representation for women in politics • Works to end violence and poverty for women
Adolf Hitler • The word anti-Semitic means to hate Jews. • The Nazi party was anti-Semitic. • Many people in Germany at the time were anti-Semitic. • Adolf Hitler wrote a book called “Mein Kampf”. Mein Kampf means “my struggle”. In this book he told the German people why he hated the Jews and how Germany would be made better if he killed them.
Hitler’s Ideas about the Jews: • The Jews are to blame for Germany losing the war. • The Jews have all the money in Germany. • The Jews have all the jobs in Germany. • The Jews have the best German food. • The Jews are murderers. • The Jews steal from German people. • I will make all the Jews leave Germany. • I will kill all Jews who do not leave Germany.
None of these facts were true. • The Jews had saved their money and worked very hard after the war. • Hitler knew he could make people really jealous of the Jews because they did look rich. • He used this jealousy to get into power. • He gave the Germans someone to blame for all of their problems – the Jews.
Anti-Semitism Begins in 1934 • Hitler started introducing anti-Semitism laws when he took control over Germany. • Schoolbooks were rewritten to make Jews look bad. • The Nazis used books, films, and newspapers to say bad things about the Jews. • Germans were told to stay away from Jewish doctors because they were dirty. • Germans were encouraged to vandalize or smash the windows Jewish-owned shops. • Nuremberg Laws were introduced in 1935. SEE ACTIVITY SHEET.