Turkish Team. Heraklia :. STUDY VISITS . Şirince:. Gümüşkesen Monument :. Axed Door :. Bodrum Museum :. Virgin Mary :. Ethnography Museum In İzmir:. Milas Kurşunlu Mosque :. Milas Ulu Mosque :. Seljuk -Efes Museums :. Ballet in İzmir:. Bodrum:. THE BEGINNING OF EDUCATION
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Milas Kurşunlu Mosque:
Milas Ulu Mosque:
Ballet in İzmir:
Everynation has itsownhistory of educationdespitesomesimilaritieswithothers. Generally,theeducationalhistory of a nationmainlydealswithinstructionalandeducationalactivitiesfrom a historicalperspective.Inthiscontext,it is necessarytounderlinesomeimportanteventsanderasaffectedelemantaryteachereducationandpreparationfromhistoricalperspectives.Itwould be necessarytogive a briefhistory of TurkishEducation.
Thehistory of Turkeyeducationgoesbacktoearlycenturies.IntheTurkishhistory,someimportanteventsinfluencededucation , such as; dispersion of TurksfromCentralAsiatotheIndianpeninsula,aroundtheCaspianSea,andthewestandconvertingtoIslamicreligion in 9th century.Theeffects of Islamicreligionwasseen in thetheGreatSeljuks’ era.Likeeverystate ,theyneedededucatedpeopleforthesake of state.Eventually, a fewnumbers of school (called …..medrese) taughtsomeessentialknowledgeforstateaffairsandreligiouspurposescould be seenduringtheGreatSeljukEmpire, AnatolianSeljukStateandtheOttomansState. One of thefamous of thesescoolswasthe Nizamiye Medrese foundednearBaghdad in 1067.
Accordingtosomehistorians,bythelate of 16th century,it could be foundfewscholarsdealingwithscienceactivities,such as astronomy but theywere not wellrespectedbytheotherscholars.Unfortunately, at theend, some of thosefamousscholarspaidtheresults of theiractivitieswiththeirlive,forexample Molla Lutfi.Intheresult,general attitudestowardthepeoplewhoweredealingwithorstudyingsomesort of sciencerelatedcourses, apart fromsomemedicalandastronomycourses,were not goodand not wellrespectedespeciallyafterthelasthalf of 16th century.
Thefirst western stylesschoolsopenedduringthesecondhalf of 18th centuryweremainlyschools.Itwasseen a newschooltypecalledRustiye,a kind of middleschools.In 1869 withtheacception of thedecree of the general educationpolicy (Maarifi-i Umumi Nizamnamesi),thesekinds of schoolsbegantodisseminatethroughout of theOttomanEmpire.On theotherhand, thepreparation of teachersfortheseschoolswas a strongnecessity but therewas no specialteachers’ schoolfortheseschools.
Finally ,it was a turningpoint in thehistory of Turkisheducationthat on the 16th of March, 1848 forfirst time a teacherschoolwasopenedfortheneeds of newlyopenedmiddleschools.Afterthisdate, thehistory of Turkishteachereducationbegantomakeprogress.Eventhefirstyears,theschoolwas not enoughforqualityandquantityforteachereducation but it was a beginning. Thisbeginninglatermadethebeginning of otherteachers’schoolcalledtheschool of elementaryschoolteachers in 1868.
THE FIRST SCHOOL OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHERS DURING REORDER(TANZIMAT)AND FIRST CONSTITUTIONAL ERA
Educationalreforms in theOttomanEmpirebeganfromuptodown in thesecondhalf of 18th century as theclassification of thehighschoolorcollegelevelmilitaryandtechnicalschools. As mentionedabove,whentheneed of educatedstudentsbeforecomingtothesekinds of schoolsincreased ,it wasthoughttoopenmiddlelevelschoolsforupperlevelschools.Afteropeningmiddlelevel western styleschools,therewas a needforteachers.
Consequently, it wasfollowedbytheopening of thefirstteachers’ school in thehistory of Turkisheducation in 1848. Finally,thismovementwasendedwiththerevision of traditionalelementaryteachers on 15th of November,1868.Thisschoolwasonlyfortwoyearsandthe name of coursesarepresented in thefollowingtable 1.
Teaching REORDER(TANZIMAT)AND FIRST MethodsCalculationGeographyTable 1PersianTurkish Language andGrammarHistory of theOttomanAlgebraWritingLater,thefemaleelementaryandmiddleteachers’ schoolwasopenedanditscourseswerealmostthesame as themaleelementaryteachers’ school’scourses.Afterthat,theseteachers’schoolsbeganto be seen in othermajorcities,beyondIstanbul,thecapital of theOttomanEmpire.Therewerealmost no science-relatedcoursesforteachercandidates in theseteachers’ schools.Anotherreasonwould be thattheseschoolswerestillunderthepressurefromthetraditionalschoolsbecausetheteachers of theseelementaryteachers’ schoolsmainlycomingfromtraditionalschoolsystems(medrese) andcoursesmostlypertinenttoreligioussubjects.In 1904,middleandelementaryteachers’ schoolswereconvergedunderoneschool as a kind of primaryteachers’ schoolsandthelevel of theseschoolscould be considered as a highschoollevel.The name of coursesandtheirweeklycousehoursarelisted in thetable 2.
The REORDER(TANZIMAT)AND FIRST name of CourseFirstyearSecondYear
TheNobleQur’an 4 3 Table 2andIts Reading
TurkishandGrammar 3 -
TeachingMethods - 1
The Art of Fine - 2
Arabic 2 2
Persian 2 2
French - 1
Calculation 2 2
PyhsicalScience 1 1
General Ottoman 2 2
TheHistoryIslam 2 1
Writing 1 1
Total 19 18
In REORDER(TANZIMAT)AND FIRST 1904, therevisedcurriculum of elementaryteachers’ schoolsincluded a sort of sciencecourse,translatedtoEnglish as a pyhsicalsciencecourseforthefirst time. Whencomparedtothefirstcurriculum of elementaryteacherschools,thenewcurriculum of elementaryteacherschools,thenewcurriculumseemstoshowsomeelements of western influence as therewas a foreignlanguagecourseand a physicalsciencecourse.Thepercentage of weeklyhours of physicalsciencecoursewasaround 5.4%.However,Hasim Pasha,Minister of Education in 1906 ,wrote Sultan Abdulhamid a letter in whichIlm-i Esya (PhysicalScience)Course was not a necessarycoursesothat it would be abolishedfromtheprogram.Thereasontoabolishthecoursewasthat it wasconsidered as an unnecessarycourseforstudents.Therewas no majorchangeuntiltheSecondConstitutionalEra.In 1876,as thefirst time a constitutionwaspromulgatedandtheduration of thisperiodwasonlyoneyear . ThefirstOttomanParliamentwasabolishedwhentheTurkish-RussianWarstarted in 1877,andthecountrybeganto be governedbytheabsoluterule of Sultan Abdulhamiduntil 1908.Duringthis time thenumber of primaryteachers’ schools,out of Istanbul,wasincreased.However,therewas no significantchange in theseschools’ curriculum
DURING THE SECOND CONSTITUTIONAL ERA REORDER(TANZIMAT)AND FIRST Inthelate time of theOttomanEmpire,therewereseveralideasorapproaches in ordertosavetheEmpire. Generally,someintellectuals,whoespeciallystudied in Europe,believedthattheEmpirecould be savedthrougheducationandreachingthevastareas of theEmpirebyincreasingpublicliteracylevel. Therefore,educationreformsbegantomakeprogress.One of themwasTemporaryPrimaryEducationLawaccepted in 1913. Accordingtothislaw,it wasplannedtoopenoneteachers’ school in everyprovincecenterand in someprovincecenters, teacher’sschoolsforgirls.However,in thisperiodthereweremanyinternalandexternalproblems.
ThemostimportantonewastheFirstWorldWarDuringthis time period,also,thenumber of years of educationfortheprimaryteacherschoolswasincreasedfromthreeyearstofouryears.Therewerealsosomenewcourses in schoolcurriculum,some of whichwererelatedtosciencearea.However, thischangewas not implementedfullyduetotheFirstWorldWar.Additionally,thefirstboardingteachers’ schoolswerethoughtto be opened in ruralareasorvillages .Intable 3, the name of coursesandweeklyhoursarelistedbelow.
Table REORDER(TANZIMAT)AND FIRST 3
Courses1st Year 2nd Year 3rd Year 4th Year
Qur’anandReligious Knowledge 2 2 2 2
TeachingMethodsand Application 1 2 12
Punctuationandwritingrules 5 3 2
Ottomanlanguage 2 3 2 2
Reading andMemorization 3 2 2 3
French 1 1 1
CalculationandAlgebra 3 3 3 2
TheWays of KeepingNotes on Accounting 3
Geometry 2 2 1
Geography 2 2 1 1
Geography (Astronomy)* 1
History 2 2 2 2
Physics* 2 1 1
Natural Science* 3 3
Health Knowledge* 2
TheoreticalandAppliedAgricultureandthe 2 3 3 3
History of Economy
CivilizationandLaw 1 1 1
Hand Tools Course 1
FineWriting 1 1 1
Music 2 1 1
Picturing 2 2 2 1
HandActivities 2 2 2 2
PhysicalEducation 2 2 2 2
Total 36 35 36 36
This REORDER(TANZIMAT)AND FIRST schoolcurriculumseemsto be as much as contemporary at its time forprimaryteachers’ school in theOttomanEmpire but as mentionedabove , it could not appliedduetotheFirstWorldWar. The total number of hours of sciencerelatedcourseswas 14 hours a weekandthepercentage of sciencerelatedcourseswas 9.7% in the total number of weeklyhours of coursesforfouryears. Additionally, thenumber of primaryteachers’ collegeswasincreasedto 16 andwas spread outtothesomemajorcities of theOttomanEmpire in 1914. It is necessarytoremindthattheseprimaryteachers’ schoolsseemto be a kind of uppersecondaryschool. However, therewas no clearevidence of thekind of studentsthatcould be acceptedtothisprimaryteachers’ schoolsand of thecategoryunderwhichthisschoolscould be placed. However, sometimestheseschoolswereunder a department of collegelevelteachers’ schoolsduring 1913-14 in Istanbul, accordingto be officialguideandpolicyteachersschoolspreparedbythegovernment.
Unfortunately, manyeducational reform movementscould not bringaboutsomeexpectedresults in education, especially in teachereducation. Afterthepromulgation of thesecondconstitionera in theOttomanEmpire, thereweremanyinternalandexternalproblems. Themostimportantonewasthecollapse of theOttomanEmpire as a result of theFirstWorldWar. As a result of thesedevelopments , manyelementaryteachers’ school in ruralareawereclosedorpostponedtheirinstructionduetothefinancialreasons, lack of qualifiedinstructors, internalandexternalproblemssuch as warsandthedisintegration of theOttomanEmpire.
Primary REORDER(TANZIMAT)AND FIRST TeacherSchoolsAfter 1923 (RepublicEra)
Afterthecollapse of theOttomanEmpire, themainlandAnatolia, wasunder a threat of invasionbyothercountries. Withtheliberationwar, Turkeygained her liberationandindependence, undertheleadership of Mustafa Kemal. Finally, therewas a youngrepublic, founded at the 29th of October, 1923. Withthefollowing of establishment of therepublic, thereweresome reform movements in manyareasandone of themostimportantreformswastheunification of education. Withthislawallschoolsandfoundationsrelatedtoeducationwereunifiedundertheministry of nationaleducationandtraditionalschools, medreses, wereabolishedpermanently. Theotheronewasthatelementaryeducationwascompulsoryandfree.
Table REORDER(TANZIMAT)AND FIRST 4
Courses 1st Year 2nd Year 3rd Year 4th Year 5th Years
ReligiousKnowledge 2 2
TurkishandLiterature 6 5 3 3 3
History 2 2 2 2
Theknowledge of Motherland 2
Educationandthehistory of Education 3 4
Calculation 3 2 2
Geometry 2 2 1
1st REORDER(TANZIMAT)AND FIRST Year 2nd Year 3rd Year 4th Year 5th Years
Physics 2 2 1
Chemistry 1 2 1
General HealthControlandSchoolHealthControl 2 1
Geography 2 1 2 1
Art 2 1 1 1 1
Hand Project 1
Writing 2 1
Music 1 1 1 1 1
PhysicalEducation 1 1 1 1 1
ForeignLanguage 3 2 2 2 2
VocationalCoursesforGirls* 1 2 4 4 4
One REORDER(TANZIMAT)AND FIRST of theimportantaims of theyoungTurkishrepublicwastodisseminatethebasiceducationtoall of thecitizens since themajority of peopleliving in ruralareawerestillilliterate.In 1924, thecommittee of scienceconsideringeducationmadesomeimportantdecisionsthat;1)thenumber of gradesforelementaryschoolswasfive,2)theduration of elementaryteachers’ schoolswasincreasedfromfouryearstofiveyears,3)theircurriculumwasmostlychangedandrevisedbased on theideastheyoungrepublic.
Thefirstcurriculum of PrimaryTeacherSchoolscould be seen in thefollowingtableafterestablishingtheRepublic in 1923.This is thefirstelementaryteachers’ schools’ curriculumafterthefoundation of theRepublic of Turkey.Whentocurriculums as in 1914 werecompared,somedifferences can be easilydiscernedthatthepercentage of sicencecoursesincreasedfrom 9.7% to 12.1%.Theotherdifferencebetweentwoschoolcurriculums in 1914 and 1924 wasthat it showedthefirstsigns of secularization in schoolcurriculums as it decreasedthenumber of religionrelatedcourses.
Thelevels of theseelementaryteachers’ schoolscould be classified as a combination of middleandsecondaryschools at that time.As mentionedabove,themajority of populationwasstillliving in ruralarea,especially in villages.Duringthis time,thenewlyestablishedrepublicwasinvitingsomeforeigneducatorstoTurkeysuch as John Dewey in 1924.
Table REORDER(TANZIMAT)AND FIRST 5
Courses 1st Year 2nd Year 3rd YearLiterature33 3
Pedagogy 2 1
Psychology** 2 2
TheHistory of 2 2Education
Geography 2 2 2
Maths 2 1 2
PhysicsandChemistry 4 4 1
NaturalSciencesand4*/2** 4*/2** 3**
SchoolHealth */** 2* 2* 1**
ForeignLanguage 3 2
Gymnastics 1 1 1
Hands of Activities 2 1 1
Music 1 1 1
Militaryinformation*/** 2/1 2/1 2/1
Sowing** 2 1 1
ChildCare** 1 1
Drawing** 1 1 1
Total*/** 29*/30** 29*/30** 29*/30**
İstanbul REORDER(TANZIMAT)AND FIRST HighSchool
Atatürk is in a REORDER(TANZIMAT)AND FIRST lesson
In REORDER(TANZIMAT)AND FIRST Dewey’sreport,it wasmentionedthatforruralareasorvillages it wasnecessarytoopenanothertype of villageteacherschooltomeettheneeds of villagers.Thisfactledtoanotherdiscussiontoopen a differentelementaryteacherschoolforvillageschools in 1925.As a result of thismovement,withtheminister of education,Mustafa Necati, in 1927 twovillageteacherschoolswereopenedwith a threeyearinstructionperiodafterelementaryschoolgraduation.Thenewvillageteacherschools’ curriculumshowed
some pragmatist approach in elementaryteachereducation. Thiswassuggestedby John Deweythateducationshouldmeettheneeds of peopleaccordingtowheretheylive.Therefore,specialattentionwaspaidtoagriculturalcoursesandtheirapplications.Forexample,in 1924 primaryteacherschoolsformalestudentstherewasonly a two-hour in a weekagriculturecourse but in villageteacherschoolstherewas a six-hour-weekagriculturecourse. On theotherhand,theratio of sciencecourses in thevillageteacherschoolsseemsto be decreased,primaryteacherschools.Forexample,thepercentages of sciencecourses in primaryteacherschoolsandvillageschoolswere 12.1% and 8.6%, respectively.Thismovementcould be called as thebeginning of a dualsystem in theTurkishelementaryteachereducation.
You REORDER(TANZIMAT)AND FIRST knowwediscussedtheimprovements of educationafter