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Chapter 9 Intrinsic Rewards and Job Design. Learning Goals. Discuss the role of job design in giving people opportunities to experience intrinsic rewards Describe the major theories of job design Have some insight into the design of your present job and your reactions to it.

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Chapter 9 Intrinsic Rewards and Job Design


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    1. Chapter 9Intrinsic Rewards and Job Design

    2. Learning Goals • Discuss the role of job design in giving people opportunities to experience intrinsic rewards • Describe the major theories of job design • Have some insight into the design of yourpresent job and your reactions to it

    3. Learning Goals (Cont.) • Appreciate how the work context affects people's reaction to the design of their jobs • Explain the process of diagnosing and redesigning jobs • Distinguish between the design of jobs for individuals and the design of jobs for groups

    4. Chapter Overview • Introduction • Intrinsic Rewards and Job Design • The Job Characteristics Theory of Work Motivation • Contextual Factors in Job Design • Diagnosing and Redesigning Jobs

    5. Chapter Overview (Cont.) • Group-Based Job Design • Factors Affecting Perceptions of Objective Job Characteristics • International Aspects of Job Design • Ethical Issues in Job Design

    6. Introduction • Job design affects motivation and satisfaction • Organizations and managers can create a context within which employees experience intrinsic rewards • Only indirect control over intrinsic rewards • Can only create a set of job experiences that lets employees experience intrinsic rewards

    7. Intrinsic Rewards and Job Design • Some job redesign efforts • Job rotation • Same worker moved among different jobs • Each job often had few tasks or activities • Proponents believed a worker became less bored by doing many different activities in a day

    8. Intrinsic Rewards and Job Design (Cont.) • Some job redesign efforts (cont.) • Job enlargement • Add duties and tasks to a job • People did not move from one job to another • Duties and tasks repackaged to make an individual's job larger • Two or more jobs combined into a single new job

    9. Intrinsic Rewards and Job Design (Cont.) • Some job redesign efforts (cont.) • Job enrichment • Also repackaged duties • Added duties and tasks that increased a worker autonomy and responsibility • Workers also had increased involvement in decision making

    10. Intrinsic Rewards and Job Design (Cont.) • Characteristics of approaches • Enhance the content of a job to increase satisfaction; decrease boredom • Job enrichment: expected to increase employee motivation, job performance, productivity • Assumed a positive linear relationship between job design and employee motivation • Clear by the 1960s a universal, positive, linear response was not true of all people

    11. The Job Characteristics Theory of Work Motivation (Cont.) • Well-developed and well-understood job design theory • Understand how job characteristics affect people’s motivation and satisfaction • Text book Figure 9.1: overview of the theory

    12. The Job Characteristics Theory of Work Motivation (Cont.) • Affective outcomes: person’s internal reactions; satisfaction and motivation • Behavioral outcomes: observable behavior such as quality and quantity of work • Critical psychological states • Internal reactions to perceived job characteristics • Lead to affective and behavioral outcomes

    13. The Job Characteristics Theory of Work Motivation (Cont.) • Affective and behavioral outcomes • Affective outcomes • Internal work motivation: feeling of self-reward from doing the job itself (intrinsic motivation) • Growth satisfaction: personal growth and development satisfaction • General job satisfaction: overall feelings about work and the organization

    14. The Job Characteristics Theory of Work Motivation (Cont.) • Affective and behavioral outcomes • Behavioral outcomes • Work effectiveness • Quality of work performance • Quantity of work performance • Lower absenteeism • Reduced emotional exhaustion and stress

    15. The Job Characteristics Theory of Work Motivation (Cont.) • Critical psychological states • Knowledge of results: must know job performance while doing the work itself • Experienced responsibility: must control the results of work activities • Experienced meaningfulness: person must feel the work is important

    16. The Job Characteristics Theory of Work Motivation (Cont.) • Perceived and objective job characteristics • Core job characteristics: must be present to produce the critical psychological states • Perceive objective job characteristics that form impressions of core job characteristics

    17. The Job Characteristics Theory of Work Motivation (Cont.) • Skill variety: degree to which job has many different activities using several skills, abilities, and talents • Task identity: degree to which job lets a person do a whole piece of work from start to finish • Task significance: degree to which the person doing job perceives it as important to others

    18. The Job Characteristics Theory of Work Motivation (Cont.) • Autonomy: degree of discretion in deciding how and when to do the job • Feedback from the job itself: degree to which person learns about the quality of job performance while doing the task • Includes feedback from clients directly served by the job • Does not include feedback from a supervisor or coworkers

    19. The Job Characteristics Theory of Work Motivation (Cont.) • Relationship of core job characteristics to critical psychological states • Skill variety, task identity, and tasksignificance experienced meaningfulness of the work • The three job characteristics can offset each other Job not perceived as significant may be a whole job,using many skills and abilities

    20. The Job Characteristics Theory of Work Motivation (Cont.) • Relationship of core job characteristics to critical psychological states (cont.) • Autonomy experienced responsibility for outcomes of the work • Feedback from the job itself knowledge of the actual results of work activities

    21. The Job Characteristics Theory of Work Motivation (Cont.) • Motivating potential • Summarizes effect of core job characteristics on psychological states • Formula on text book page 159 shows combining effects of job characteristics

    22. The Job Characteristics Theory of Work Motivation (Cont.) • Motivating potential (cont.) • Strong effects of autonomy and feedback from the job itself • Autonomy and job feedback related to two of three critical psychological states • Low levels of psychological states associated with low affective and behavioral response

    23. The Job Characteristics Theory of Work Motivation (Cont.) • Relationships predicted bythe theory • Positive linear response to motivating potential • High motivating potential: high internal work motivation • Low motivating potential: low internal work motivation

    24. The Job Characteristics Theory of Work Motivation (Cont.) • Relationships predicted bythe theory (cont.) • Moderator variables • Change or affect relationships among parts of the theory • Individual moderators: factors in the person • Work context moderators: factors surrounding the person while doing the job

    25. The Job Characteristics Theory of Work Motivation (Cont.) • Relationships predicted bythe theory (cont.) • Moderator variables (cont.) • Positive moderator variable: more positive response to motivating potential • Negative moderator variable: less positive response to motivating potential • Negative work context • Distraction effect • Escape effect See text book Figure 9.2

    26. The Job Characteristics Theory of Work Motivation (Cont.) • Relationships predicted bythe theory (cont.) • Moderator variables (cont.) • Knowledge and skill • Growth need strength • Context satisfaction • Theory does not assume universal, positive response to jobs high in motivating potential

    27. The Job Characteristics Theory of Work Motivation (Cont.) • Relationships predicted bythe theory (cont.) • Moderator variables (cont.) • Knowledge and skill • Person with needed skills and abilities should do job successfully • High motivating potential combines with person's knowledge and skill: higher internal work motivation • Person without needed skills and abilities should not do job successfully: low internal work motivation

    28. The Job Characteristics Theory of Work Motivation (Cont.) • Relationships predicted bythe theory (cont.) • Moderator variables (cont.) • Growth need strength (GNS) • Strong growth need people should respond more positively to jobs high in motivating potential than weak growth need people • More "ready" to respond than people with weak growth needs • Weak growth need people can feel "stretched" by a high motivating potential job

    29. The Job Characteristics Theory of Work Motivation (Cont.) • Relationships predicted bythe theory (cont.) • Moderator variables (cont.) • Context satisfaction • Quality of supervision • Compensation system • Job security • Immediate coworkers • Negative work context distracts from a high motivating potential job • Positive work context is supportive; lets the person experience a job’s motivating qualities

    30. The Job Characteristics Theory of Work Motivation (Cont.) • Relationships predicted bythe theory (cont.) • Implications for you • If you desire intrinsic outcomes, high MPS jobs • Should motivate you • Act as a source of satisfaction • If you desire extrinsic outcomes, the opposite is true • Intrinsic outcomes less important to you than extrinsic outcomes for good performance

    31. The Job Characteristics Theory of Work Motivation (Cont.) • Contextual factors in job design • Organizational design: task specialization, centralization, decentralization • Technical process: major ways the work of the organization gets done • Management behavior: relationships with subordinates; involvement of subordinates

    32. The Job Characteristics Theory of Work Motivation (Cont.) • Organizational design and job design • Task specialization • High specialization: low core job characteristics, low motivating potential • Low specialization: high job characteristics, high motivating potential

    33. The Job Characteristics Theory of Work Motivation (Cont.) • Organizational design and job design (cont.) • Centralized-decentralization • Centralized decision making: low skill variety, autonomy, and task identity; low motivating potential • Decentralized decision making processes: high core job characteristics; high motivating potential

    34. The Job Characteristics Theory of Work Motivation (Cont.) • Technical process and job design • Hinders or helps job redesign • Capital investment in existing technical process can limit job redesign • Adopting a particular technical process can help job redesign Group-based technical process Redesign jobs around that technology

    35. The Job Characteristics Theory of Work Motivation (Cont.) • Technical process and job design (cont.) • Mass-production technical processes • Standardized jobs: low core job characteristics; low motivating potential • Custom-designed work: high core job characteristics; high motivating potential

    36. The Job Characteristics Theory of Work Motivation (Cont.) • Technical process and job design (cont.) • New manufacturing approaches • Flexible manufacturing techniques: required worker flexibility can increase skill variety and autonomy • Group-based manufacturing technologies: group-based job design discussed later

    37. The Job Characteristics Theory of Work Motivation (Cont.) • Technical process and job design (cont.) • Just-in-time inventory management • Removes buffers within the technical process • Requires quick worker responses • High skill variety, autonomy, feedback from the job itself; high motivating potential

    38. The Job Characteristics Theory of Work Motivation (Cont.) • Management behavior and job design • Close control over subordinates: low skill variety, task identity, autonomy; low motivating potential • General control: high skill variety, task identity, autonomy; high motivating potential

    39. The Job Characteristics Theory of Work Motivation (Cont.) • Management behavior and job design (cont.) • Involvement in decision-making process • Shows importance of a person's organizational role • Increase commitment to the decision • Allow more discretion in carrying out the decision • High skill variety, task significance, autonomy; high motivating potential

    40. Get information about existing jobs Questionnaires Personal interviews Direct observations Diagnosing andRedesigning Jobs

    41. Job Diagnostic Survey (JDS) Measures job characteristics and affective responses Calculate MPS and compare to norms Decide whether job has an excessively low score Identify the job characteristics responsible for low MPS Diagnosing andRedesigning Jobs (Cont.)

    42. Job Diagnostic Survey (cont.) Measures employee GNS and levels of work context satisfaction GNS of employees in target jobs Ready to respond to a redesigned job (high GNS)? Context satisfactions: employees perceive a positive work context? Diagnosing andRedesigning Jobs (Cont.)

    43. Job Diagnostic Survey (cont.) JDS does not measure employee knowledge and skills Do employees have the needed knowledge and skills to do the redesigned work? If not, include a training program with the job redesign program Diagnosing andRedesigning Jobs (Cont.)

    44. Job Diagnostic Survey (cont.) Employees who provide data should see results to verify accuracy Asking employees to suggest ways to redesign their jobs can elicit useful information Diagnosing andRedesigning Jobs (Cont.)

    45. Have mainly focused on job design for individuals Some tasks better done by groups Such groups are known as self-managing work groups Design both the group's task and some aspects of the group Group-Based Job Design

    46. Self-managing work group Intact groups, permanent or temporary Interdependent members do tasks Both members and nonmembers perceive the groups as real Produces a defined product, service, or decision Group-Based Job Design (Cont.)

    47. Self-managing work group (cont.) Members control the group's tasks and the group's interpersonal processes Have task assignment authority Decide how and when work will be done Major source of it’s self-managing quality Group-Based Job Design (Cont.)

    48. Design of the task and the group Skill variety: group uses many different skills in doing task Task identity: group does whole task Task significance: group members perceive task as important to others Group-Based Job Design (Cont.)

    49. Group-Based Job Design (Cont.) • Design of the task and the group (cont.) • Autonomy: group task must give group members discretion in getting work done • Feedback from the job itself: give feedback to members while doing group’s task

    50. Design of the task and the group (cont.) Group composition Members have needed skills and abilities Group member heterogeneity: find creative solutions based on member differences Group member homogeneity: similar thinking patterns; fail to find creative solutions Group-Based Job Design (Cont.)