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The Divisions of the North and South. GPS # 8 GPS #9 GPS #10. Georgia Performance Standard. SSUSH8 The student will explain the relationship between growing north-south divisions and westward expansion.

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georgia performance standard
Georgia Performance Standard

SSUSH8 The student will explain the relationship between growing north-south divisions and westward expansion.

SSUSH9 The student will identify key events, issues, and individuals relating to the causes, course, and consequences of the Civil War.

SSUSH10 The student will identify legal, political, and social dimensions of Reconstruction.

essential question
Essential Question

Why did Slavery become a significant issue in politics?

Westward Expansion = New territory needs to be settled.

After these territories have been settled what becomes the issue?

SLAVERY

slavery and abolitionism
Slavery and Abolitionism
  • Abolitionists called for the immediate end of slavery.
  • Abolitionist spoke out against slavery, wrote books, published newspapers
      • Name three prominent abolitionist………
        • Grimke Sisters
        • Frederick Douglas
        • William Lloyd Garrison
views on slavery
Views on Slavery

Many Northerners came to believe slavery violated the basic principals of the US and Christian religion – all humans have the right to choose their own destiny and follow God’s laws

Slavery

Many Southerners saw slaves as part of one big family of the plantation owners. He took a special interest in their care, necessities of life, and provided shelter. Slavery provided the life blood labor source of the South.

north and the south

Differences Between the

Northern States

Southern States

North and the South

By the 1850’s, the North and the South had developed into regions

with very different economies, societies and views on slavery.

the grimke sisters
The Grimke Sisters

Sarah & Angela Grimke were southern women who spoke out against slavery

They grew up on a plantation and personally witnessed the horrors of slavery

frederick douglas william lloyd garrison
Frederick DouglasWilliam Lloyd Garrison

Frederick Douglass spoke out against the Fugitive Slave Act by emphasizing the requirement that citizens help capture runaways.

Worked for Garrison- then started his own newspaper The North Star

Published a biography of about himself

William Lloyd Garrison-White abolitionist

Founded the newspaper The Liberator

Printed true stories about the treatment of slaves

eye witness account
Eye Witness Account

Look at the following eyewitness account. What was Douglass’s point of view about why slaves were whipped?.

A mere look, word, or motion… a mistake, accident, or want of power… are all matters for which a slave may be whipped at any time. Does a slave look dissatisfied? It is said, he has the devil in him, and it must be whipped out. Does he forget to pull off his hat at the approach of a white person? Then he is wanting in reverence, and shall be whipped for it.

nat turner
Nat Turner

African American preacher believed that God’s mission for him on earth was to free his people

Led a slave rebellion in Virginia killing 60 whites

He was captured and killed, this led to more restrictive laws against slaves

the missouri compromise 1820
The Missouri Compromise 1820

Missouri applies for statehood – the question rises whether slavery will extend to the western territory

In 1819 there are 11 Free States and 11 Slave states – Missouri will make an uneven #

Maine – which was once part of Massachusetts also applies for statehood

Congress votes that Missouri will be a slave state

Maine a free state

To keep any further argument over the entry of new states a line was drawn dividing the North and South. The 36/30 latitude line (Mason Dixon Line) was established by the great compromise Henry Clay of Ky.

slide13

Sectional balance was maintained - with the admission of Missouri and Maine there were 12 free states and 12 slave states. This established a precedent that would be followed for the next 30 years concerning the issue of slavery in the West.

The Missouri Compromise- Map

slide14

Congressman

Sectionalists

State’s

Rights

Andrew

Jackson’s

Vice

President

In 1824 and

1828

Nullification

South

Carolina

Friends with

Henry Clay

John C. Calhoun

House of Representatives

Senate

state s rights ideology john c calhoun
State’s Rights Ideology, John C. Calhoun

John C. Calhoun of South Carolina wanted to weaken the control of the Federal government over the States.

He believed in Nullification and State’s Rights (the State’s authority over the Federal government)

Calhoun argued that if the federal government does not allow a state to nullify a law deemed unconstitutional, then that state has the right to secede from the Union.

the nullification crisis
The Nullification Crisis

The South relied on manufactured goods from England, since their economy was based on agriculture.

Tariffs made the goods very expensive but benefited the North

The Tariff of 1828 – the South called it the Tariff of Abominations

South Carolina threatened to succeed (withdraw from the US)

John C. Calhoun of S.C. was President Andrew Jackson’s Vice President

He put forth the idea of Nullification (State’s voiding Federal Law)

Jackson was against it

the wilmot proviso
The Wilmot Proviso

David Wilmot- Democrat- Pennsylvania Representative

1846 – David Wilmot proposed that any territory gained from the War with Mexico that neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall exists.

Who would agree with this? Why? (North/South)

Who would disagree? Why?

The Senate refused to vote on the bill but it further divided the North and the South

slide18

Congress failed to settle the issue of slavery in the West, leading to the formation of new political parties

Compromise of 1850

fugitive slave act
Fugitive Slave Act
  • Fugitive Slave Act
    • accused runaways arrested; sworn testimony by a white witness was all a court needed to send the person south
    • accused fugitives had no rights to a trial and were not allowed to testify
    • A person who refused to help capture a fugitive slave could be jailed.
kansas nebraska act 1854
Kansas-Nebraska Act 1854

Kansas

How did the violence in Kansas

demonstrate that popular

sovereignty was a failure?

  • These two territories would enter the Union based on Popular Sovereignty.
  • New territories could choose to be free or slave states.
  • The result was Bleeding Kansas
    • Armed clashes between northerners (anti-slavery) and southerners (pro-slavery) in Kansas.
tensions leading up to the civil war
Tensions leading up to the Civil War

. Abolitionism

. William Lloyd Garrison

. Frederick Douglas

. Grimke Sisters

. Missouri Compromise of 1820

. Nat Turner’s Rebellion

. Nullification Crisis

. John C. Calhoun

. Sectionalism

. State's Rights

. Wilmot Proviso

. Compromise of 1850

. Kansas Nebraska Act

dred scott
Dred Scott
  • Scot was taken by his master into the free state of Illinois, and then later, back into the slave state of Missouri
  • With the help of an abolitionist group Scott sued for freedom (1847), claiming that because he had lived in a free state, he should be free
dred scott1
Scott was eventually freed in May 1857, but died nine months later*

The case went to the Supreme Court where in 1857, the Court ruled against Scott

Because slaves were not citizens of the U.S., Scott could not sue in Federal Court

Dred Scott
john brown s raid 1859
John Brown’s Raid 1859
  • A abolitionist who used violence against those supporting slavery
  • In 1859, he and his followers tried to support a slave uprising in Virginia by seizing an arsenal in Harpers Ferry
john brown s raid
John Brown’s Raid
  • The uprising was quickly put down and after a trial, Brown was executed
  • Brown was viewed by many in the North as a martyr for the anti-slavery movement

How do you think

Brown was viewed

In the South-why?

the election of 1860
The Election of 1860
  • Abraham Lincoln
  • Republican candidate
  • Against the SPREAD of slavery
  • Promised not to stop slavery in the South where it was already practiced.
  • Said he hoped it would one day END there, too.
  • No Slavery Beyond This Point

Stephen A. Douglas

  • West should decide for themselves about slavery.
  • States Choice
  • John Breckinridge
  • Democratic candidate popular with southerners
  • Government should allow slavery everywhere in the West.
  • Slavery

Everywhere

lincoln
Lincoln
  • “The framers of the Constitution intended slavery to end.”
  • The problem is that slavery is WRONG!
worried white southerners
Worried White Southerners
  • Many in the South were afraid if Lincoln were elected, slavery would be outlawed.
  • Some even said they would LEAVE the Union if Lincoln was elected.

Lincoln In...We're OUT

inaugural address
Inaugural Address
    • Lincoln insisted to southerners that secession was unconstitutional
      • “No State upon its own mere motion can lawfully get out of the Union”
  • Lincoln was bound to enforce the Constitution in every state

How do you think the South reacted to Lincoln being elected?

the confederate states of america
The Confederate States of America
  • South Carolina
  • Mississippi
  • Florida
  • Louisiana
  • Alabama
  • Georgia
  • Texas
  • Virginia
  • Arkansas
  • North Carolina
  • Tennessee
  • Lincoln was elected November 6, 1860
  • December 20, 1860 South Carolina’s leaders seceded from the Union.

President

Jefferson Davis

compare the resources of both the union and confederacy
Compare the resources of both the Union and Confederacy?

North (Union) : Fighting for Reunification of the USA

  • President: Abraham Lincoln
  • 22 states
  • Population = 20 million
  • 20,000 miles of railroad, continuing to build
  • $1.5 billion – manufacturing
  • $207 million – bank deposits

South (Confederacy): Fighting for States’ Rights to protect Economic Interests, Secession

  • President: Jefferson Davis
  • 11 states
  • Population = 11 million (9 million whites)
  • 10,000 miles of railroad, mostly on the border & not in interior as much
  • $155 million – manufacturing
  • $47 million – bank deposits
advantages
North

Population

Industrial

Financial

Transportation

More effective civilian leadership

National Government already in place

South

Fighting a defensive war

Better military leadership

Men used to outdoors

Superior cavalry

Cotton – European dependence

Advantages
slide35

LINCOLN'S "NECESSARY" ACTIONS

  • Suspended “civil liberties” or parts of the Constitution
    • writ of habeas corpus: Protects from unfair arrest and trial by jury.
    • Occupation of Baltimore: Controlled by military---- “martial law”
    • Arrested over 15,000 civilians: Without “probable cause”---suspicious “Rebel” sympathizers.
    • Closed “rebel” newspapers: Violated 1st amendment rights of “free speech and press”.
  • First Income Tax
  • Greenbacks
    • 1st paper money minted
slide36
BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: A PROCLAMATION
  • Whereas, it has become necessary to call into service not only volunteers but also portions of the militia of the States by draft in order to suppress the insurrection existing in the United States, and disloyal persons are not adequately restrained by the ordinary processes of law from hindering this measure and from giving aid and comfort in various ways to the insurrection;
  • Now, therefore, be it ordered, first, that during the existing insurrection and as a necessary measure for suppressing the same, all Rebels and Insurgents, their aiders and abettors within the United States, and all persons discouraging volunteer enlistments, resisting militia drafts, or guilty of any disloyal practice, affording aid and comfort to Rebels against the authority of United States, shall be subject to martial law and liable to trial and punishment by Courts Martial or Military Commission:
  • Second. That the Writ of Habeas Corpus is suspended in respect to all persons arrested, or who are now, or hereafter during the rebellion shall be, imprisoned in any fort, camp, arsenal, military prison, or other place of confinement by any military authority of by the sentence of any Court Martial or Military Commission.
  • In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand, and caused the seal of the United States to be affixed.
  • Done at the City of Washington this twenty fourth day of September, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-two, and of the Independence of the United States the 87th.

ABRAHAM LINCOLN

fort sumter
Fort Sumter
  • Shots fired at Fort Sumter
  • Confederate Soldier fired the first shot.

Ignore

  • Some advised Lincoln to “Let the states go”
  • Others said, “Give in on the slavery question.”
  • Still others said, “Use the ARMY to end their revolt!”

Give In

FIGHT

urgent
Urgent!
  • Message from Commander Anderson

Supplies at the Fort are almost gone. If new supplies are not sent soon, we will be forced to surrender the fort to the Confederacy.

Lincoln

He wanted to prevent war.

“We are not enemies, but friends.”

  • If I send supplies…Southerners might attack.
  • If I send troops….Southerners WILL attack.
  • If I do nothing…the commander will have to surrender.
confederate president davis
Confederate President Davis
  • Lincoln decided to send supply ships
  • And see what the Southerners would do
  • Davis decided to take over the fort BEFORE the supply ships arrived.
  • Demanded them to surrender.
  • NEVER!
  • The Confederate troops FIRED on the fort, Major Anderson and his men ran out of ammunition and had to give up.
slide41

OverviewofCivil WarStrategy

“Anaconda”Plan

the battle of antietam september 1862
The Battle of Antietam September 1862
  • Bloodiest single day of the

war:

    • Union: 12,410 casualties, double those of D-Day (June 6, 1944)
    • Lee lost 10,700 men, 25% of his Army.
  • Tactical draw, strategic victory – McClellan halted Lee’s invasion.
  • Enabled Lincoln to announce his Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation 5 days later.
  • Along with the Emancipation Proclamation, prevented Great Britain and France from recognizing the C.S.A.

Bloody Lane (Library of Congress)

ulysses s grant
Ulysses S. Grant
  • Lincoln appointed him General-in-Chief in March 1864. Grant directed Sherman to drive through the South while he himself, with the Army of the Potomac, pinned down Gen. Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia.
  • Finally, on April 9, 1865, at Appomattox Court House, Lee surrendered. Grant wrote out magnanimous terms of surrender that would prevent treason trials.
ulysses s grant union
Ulysses S. Grant (Union)
  • Late in the administration of Andrew Johnson, General Ulysses S. Grant quarreled with the President and aligned himself with the Radical Republicans.
  • He was, as the symbol of Union victory during the Civil War, their logical candidate for President in 1868.
robert e lee confederate
Robert E. Lee (Confederate)
  • Politically, Robert E. Lee was a Whig. Ironically, he was attached strongly to the Union and to the Constitution. He entertained no special sympathy for slavery.
  • On April 9, 1865, Lee surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant at the village of Appomattox Court House.
stonewall jackson confederate
“Stonewall Jackson”(Confederate)

Confederate general and right-hand man to Robert E. Lee.

Noted for his ability to use geography to his advantage.

One of his most brilliant moves came at the battle of Chancellorsville, when he successfully marched his troops over 12 miles undetected and attacked the unsuspecting Union forces.

Many believe the South would have won the war had he lived to fight at Gettysburg.

william t sherman union
William T. Sherman(Union)

Union General who gave Savannah to President Lincoln as a Christmas gift

Sherman’s March to the Sea

Destroyed railways, supplies, livestock from Atlanta to Savannah

jefferson davis
Jefferson Davis
  • President of the Confederate States of America
  • Davis failed to raise sufficient money to fight the American Civil War and could not obtain recognition and help for the Confederacy from foreign governments.
  • Davis was responsible for the raising of the formidable Confederate armies.
  • He was also responsible for the notable appointment of General Robert E. Lee as commander of the Army of Virginia.
the civil war
The Civil War
  • April 15, 1861 – Lincoln asks for 75,000 volunteers to put down the rebellion
    • Did not go through Congress, no declaration of war
  • Four slave states now join the Confederacy
    • Tennessee, Arkansas, Virginia, & North Carolina
    • Confederacy moves its capital to Richmond VA
  • Four other states decide to stay in the Union
    • Maryland, Delaware, Kentucky, & Missouri
    • They will be known as Border States
    • The western area of Virginia secedes from Virginia & formed the state of West Virginia
emancipation proclamation january 1 1863
Emancipation ProclamationJanuary 1, 1863

President Lincoln lacked the constitutional authority to abolish slavery

As commander in chief of the armed forces he planned to issue a new military order that freed all slaves living in areas still rebelling against the United States

This would only apply to Confederate and not border states

emancipation proclamation
Emancipation Proclamation

It freed the slaves only in states that have seceded from the Union.

It did not free slaves in border states.

civil war and african americans
Civil War and African-Americans
  • Thirteenth Amendment passed -Slavery abolished

54th Massachusetts Infantry

vicksburg
Vicksburg

Grant wanted to take control of the Mississippi River and he knew he would have to take Vicksburg, Mississippi to make that possible

For six weeks General Grant laid siege to the city, blocking all outside resources

Confederate soldiers urged their commander to surrender

July 3, 1863 General Grant and General John Pemberton met under an oak tree to discuss terms of surrender

battle of gettysburg july 1 3 1863
Battle of GettysburgJuly 1-3, 1863
  • Decisive Battle of the War
  • Largest Battle ever in U.S.-

172,000 troops (97,000 in Union

Army of the Potomac; 75,000 Conf.

Army of N. Va.)

  • Most casualties of any battle

(51,000 combined)

  • 569 tons of ammunition
  • Over 5,000 dead horses
gettysburg address
Gettysburg Address
  • that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion -- that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain -- that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom -- and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.

Abe Lincoln

gettysburg address1
Gettysburg Address

Describe how President Lincoln was trying to preserve the Union in his speech

the war in the south 1863 1865
The War in the South, 1863-1865
  • WilliamT. Sherman
  • Atlanta (Sept. 1864)
  • “March to the Sea”
  • Burns 60-mile wide swath of land from ATL to Savannah

Union General William T. Sherman

atlanta
Atlanta

After Atlanta Sherman left for Savannah

The fall of Atlanta boosted President Lincoln’s re-election campaign

Sherman’s success renewed republicans lost hope that the war would soon end

election of 1864
Election of 1864
  • Union Party
  • Lincoln VS.
  • George B. McClellan
  • Liconln Wins!! Yay…

George B. McClellan

Abraham Lincoln and son Tad, February 1864

(Library of Congress)

surrender at appomattox
Surrender at Appomattox
  • Lee’s Surrender, Appomattox Court House (April 9, 1865)
slide69

Abraham

Lincoln

slide71

The Assassin

John Wilkes Booth

slide73

POLITICAL / ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTS

w/o Southerners in fed. gov't, many changes occurred that benefited the North:

1) Homestead Act passed by Congress in 1862 - encouraged W. expansion w/o slavery

- 165 acres given to anyone who would farm it 5 yrs.

2) Union-Pacific Railway was authorized - great trade potential, focused on the Northern States.

3) Tariffs were put in place to protect Northern industry

slide74

POLITICAL / ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTS

  • 4) Congress established a single federal currency - same value in all states - known as "Greenbacks"
  • 5) to cover war debts, Union gov't issued war bonds and intro'dincome tax
  • 6) in a further illustration of fed. gov't power, Lincoln's gov't restricted civil liberties so nothing would detract from Union war effort (suspended Habeas Corpus)

- free press/ speech also interrupted

  • 7) 1864 Election - only in Union

- pitted Republican Lincoln against Democrat General McClellan  Lincoln won easily, assuring that war will continue (N. Democrats wanted an end)