The Divisions of the North and South. GPS # 8 GPS #9 GPS #10. Georgia Performance Standard. SSUSH8 The student will explain the relationship between growing north-south divisions and westward expansion.
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SSUSH8 The student will explain the relationship between growing north-south divisions and westward expansion.
SSUSH9 The student will identify key events, issues, and individuals relating to the causes, course, and consequences of the Civil War.
SSUSH10 The student will identify legal, political, and social dimensions of Reconstruction.
Why did Slavery become a significant issue in politics?
Westward Expansion = New territory needs to be settled.
After these territories have been settled what becomes the issue?
Many Northerners came to believe slavery violated the basic principals of the US and Christian religion – all humans have the right to choose their own destiny and follow God’s laws
Many Southerners saw slaves as part of one big family of the plantation owners. He took a special interest in their care, necessities of life, and provided shelter. Slavery provided the life blood labor source of the South.
North and the South
By the 1850’s, the North and the South had developed into regions
with very different economies, societies and views on slavery.
Sarah & Angela Grimke were southern women who spoke out against slavery
They grew up on a plantation and personally witnessed the horrors of slavery
Frederick Douglass spoke out against the Fugitive Slave Act by emphasizing the requirement that citizens help capture runaways.
Worked for Garrison- then started his own newspaper The North Star
Published a biography of about himself
William Lloyd Garrison-White abolitionist
Founded the newspaper The Liberator
Printed true stories about the treatment of slaves
Look at the following eyewitness account. What was Douglass’s point of view about why slaves were whipped?.
A mere look, word, or motion… a mistake, accident, or want of power… are all matters for which a slave may be whipped at any time. Does a slave look dissatisfied? It is said, he has the devil in him, and it must be whipped out. Does he forget to pull off his hat at the approach of a white person? Then he is wanting in reverence, and shall be whipped for it.
African American preacher believed that God’s mission for him on earth was to free his people
Led a slave rebellion in Virginia killing 60 whites
He was captured and killed, this led to more restrictive laws against slaves
Missouri applies for statehood – the question rises whether slavery will extend to the western territory
In 1819 there are 11 Free States and 11 Slave states – Missouri will make an uneven #
Maine – which was once part of Massachusetts also applies for statehood
Congress votes that Missouri will be a slave state
Maine a free state
To keep any further argument over the entry of new states a line was drawn dividing the North and South. The 36/30 latitude line (Mason Dixon Line) was established by the great compromise Henry Clay of Ky.
Sectional balance was maintained - with the admission of Missouri and Maine there were 12 free states and 12 slave states. This established a precedent that would be followed for the next 30 years concerning the issue of slavery in the West.
The Missouri Compromise- Map
In 1824 and
John C. Calhoun
House of Representatives
John C. Calhoun of South Carolina wanted to weaken the control of the Federal government over the States.
He believed in Nullification and State’s Rights (the State’s authority over the Federal government)
Calhoun argued that if the federal government does not allow a state to nullify a law deemed unconstitutional, then that state has the right to secede from the Union.
The South relied on manufactured goods from England, since their economy was based on agriculture.
Tariffs made the goods very expensive but benefited the North
The Tariff of 1828 – the South called it the Tariff of Abominations
South Carolina threatened to succeed (withdraw from the US)
John C. Calhoun of S.C. was President Andrew Jackson’s Vice President
He put forth the idea of Nullification (State’s voiding Federal Law)
Jackson was against it
David Wilmot- Democrat- Pennsylvania Representative
1846 – David Wilmot proposed that any territory gained from the War with Mexico that neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall exists.
Who would agree with this? Why? (North/South)
Who would disagree? Why?
The Senate refused to vote on the bill but it further divided the North and the South
Congress failed to settle the issue of slavery in the West, leading to the formation of new political parties
Compromise of 1850
How did the violence in Kansas
demonstrate that popular
sovereignty was a failure?
. William Lloyd Garrison
. Frederick Douglas
. Grimke Sisters
. Missouri Compromise of 1820
. Nat Turner’s Rebellion
. Nullification Crisis
. John C. Calhoun
. State's Rights
. Wilmot Proviso
. Compromise of 1850
. Kansas Nebraska Act
The case went to the Supreme Court where in 1857, the Court ruled against Scott
Because slaves were not citizens of the U.S., Scott could not sue in Federal CourtDred Scott
How do you think
Brown was viewed
In the South-why?
Stephen A. Douglas
Lincoln In...We're OUT
How do you think the South reacted to Lincoln being elected?
North (Union) : Fighting for Reunification of the USA
South (Confederacy): Fighting for States’ Rights to protect Economic Interests, Secession
Supplies at the Fort are almost gone. If new supplies are not sent soon, we will be forced to surrender the fort to the Confederacy.
He wanted to prevent war.
“We are not enemies, but friends.”
Bloody Lane (Library of Congress)
Confederate general and right-hand man to Robert E. Lee.
Noted for his ability to use geography to his advantage.
One of his most brilliant moves came at the battle of Chancellorsville, when he successfully marched his troops over 12 miles undetected and attacked the unsuspecting Union forces.
Many believe the South would have won the war had he lived to fight at Gettysburg.
Union General who gave Savannah to President Lincoln as a Christmas gift
Sherman’s March to the Sea
Destroyed railways, supplies, livestock from Atlanta to Savannah
President Lincoln lacked the constitutional authority to abolish slavery
As commander in chief of the armed forces he planned to issue a new military order that freed all slaves living in areas still rebelling against the United States
This would only apply to Confederate and not border states
It freed the slaves only in states that have seceded from the Union.
It did not free slaves in border states.
54th Massachusetts Infantry
Grant wanted to take control of the Mississippi River and he knew he would have to take Vicksburg, Mississippi to make that possible
For six weeks General Grant laid siege to the city, blocking all outside resources
Confederate soldiers urged their commander to surrender
July 3, 1863 General Grant and General John Pemberton met under an oak tree to discuss terms of surrender
172,000 troops (97,000 in Union
Army of the Potomac; 75,000 Conf.
Army of N. Va.)
Describe how President Lincoln was trying to preserve the Union in his speech
Union General William T. Sherman
After Atlanta Sherman left for Savannah
The fall of Atlanta boosted President Lincoln’s re-election campaign
Sherman’s success renewed republicans lost hope that the war would soon end
George B. McClellan
Abraham Lincoln and son Tad, February 1864
(Library of Congress)
the South was defeated.
John Wilkes Booth
w/o Southerners in fed. gov't, many changes occurred that benefited the North:
1) Homestead Act passed by Congress in 1862 - encouraged W. expansion w/o slavery
- 165 acres given to anyone who would farm it 5 yrs.
2) Union-Pacific Railway was authorized - great trade potential, focused on the Northern States.
3) Tariffs were put in place to protect Northern industry
- free press/ speech also interrupted
- pitted Republican Lincoln against Democrat General McClellan Lincoln won easily, assuring that war will continue (N. Democrats wanted an end)