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The North-South Gap CHAPTER TWELVE Dr. Clayton Thyne PS 235-001: World Politics Spring 2009 Goldstein & Pevehouse, International Relations , 8/e Student notes version State of the South World’s poor region states called:

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The north south gap l.jpg

The North-South Gap


Dr. Clayton Thyne

PS 235-001: World Politics

Spring 2009

Goldstein & Pevehouse, International Relations, 8/e

Student notes version

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State of the South

  • World’s poor region states called:

    • Third world countries, less developed countries (LDCs), underdeveloped countries (UDCs), or developing countries

  • Scholars do not agree on

  • About a billion people live in abject poverty – no access to basic nutrition and health care

    • Concentrated in ____________________

    • Two decades ago, similar situation in _______________, but average income per person there has increased

    • Every 6 seconds…

    • 5 million children…

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State of the South

  • Millennium Development Goals

    • Sets targets for basic needs measures to be achieved by ________

  • The 5 regions of the global South differ on poverty reduction, income level, and growth.

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Basic Human Needs

  • Food, shelter, and other necessities

  • Education allows a new generation to meet over basic needs and more through the demographic transition.

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Basic Human Needs

  • Children suffer from hunger in the global South.

  • Health care

  • Safe water

    • Importance of NGOs:

  • Shelter

  • War is a leading obstacle to the…

  • Disasters

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World Hunger

  • Of all the basic needs of people in the global South, the most central is food.

    • Malnutrition:

    • Hunger:

    • 820 million people (1 in 8 worldwide) are …

  • Rural communities and farming

    • Colonialism disrupted…

    • Shift to commercial farming (cash crops); displacement of subsistence farmers from the land.

    • Impact of international food aid on…

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Rural and Urban Populations

  • The displacement of subsistence farmers leads to massive population shift.

    • Urbanization:

  • Capital accumulation is concentrated in ______.

  • Influx of people can cause difficulties.

    • Slums

  • Land reform

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    Women in Developing Countries

    • Economic accumulation in poor countries is closely tied to the status of women in those societies.

    • Hold inferior social status to men in the countries of the South (more so than in the North)

    • Discrimination against girls is widespread in education and literacy.

    • Work of international agencies to help women

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    Migration and Refugees

    • Millions of people from the global South have crossed international borders, often illegally, to reach the North.

    • The home state – no obligation to…

    • Migration produces complex patterns of…

    • Most industrialized states try to limit immigration from the…

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    Migration and Refugees

    • Migrants are distinguished from refugees

      • Refugees are people fleeing to find …

    • Number of refugees in 2006 was…

    • Kurds in Turkey –

    • Palestine -

    • Economic impact

    • Nationalism:

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    Theories of Accumulation: Capitalism

    • Capital:

    • Capitalism

      • Based on liberal economics stressing …

      • System of private ownership of capital that relies on …

      • Views the global South as …

      • Cycle of accumulation depends on …

      • Concentrates __________________

      • No state is purely capitalistic

      • Principles of capitalism underlie the global economy with its great disparities of wealth

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    Theories of Accumulation: Socialism

    • Socialism – concerned with the …

      • Sees the North-South divide as more of a …

      • Believes capitalists exploit …

      • Generally endorses the use of the …

      • Does not exist anywhere in pure form.

      • In theory, central planners are supposed to use resources in a rational way that maximizes overall efficiency.

        • Russia and Eastern Europe:

        • China:

        • Privatization

    • Does not mean socialism is dead: New mixes of socialism and capitalism are being created.

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    Theories of Accumulation: The World-System

    • The global system of regional class divisions has been seen by some IR scholars as a world-system, or a capitalist world economy.

      • View is _____________ in orientation; global level of analysis

      • Class divisions regionalized

        • Third world regions …

        • Industrialized regions …

        • Class struggle between the two

      • Semiperiphery:

    • Actual patterns of world trade support the world-system theory to some extent

      • But the shift of export-oriented manufacturing from the industrialized countries to Asia reflects globalization

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    • Imperialism structured world order starkly around the …

    • At the same time, imperialism depends on the …

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    World Civilization

    • North America

    • Europe

    • China and Japan

    • Latin America

    • Africa

    • Arab caliphate and the Middle East

    • Europe

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    History of Imperialism 1500-2000

    • European imperialism

      • 15th century, with the development of oceangoing sailing ships in which a small crew could transport a sizable cargo over a long distance

      • Decimated indigenous populations

    • Decolonization

    • 19th century

    • 20th century

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    Effects of Colonialism

    • Being colonized had a devastating effect on a people and culture.

      • White domination seen as normal after …

      • Negative economic implications

      • Positives of colonization

      • Anti-colonial movements

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    Postcolonial Dependency

    • Accumulation in the global South did not take off once colonialism was overthrown.

      • Left few people with the experience to …

      • Economies had been narrowly developed.

      • Inherited borders that were drawn in …

      • Government corruption of …

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    Postcolonial Dependency

    • Dependency theory

      • Dependency as a situation in which …

      • A dependent country must borrow capital to …

    • Types of non-colonial dependency

      • Enclave economy

      • Nationally controlled production by …

      • Penetration of national economies by …

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    Revolutionary Movements

    • Political revolutions seek to change the …

    • Social revolutions seek changes in the …

    • Cold War years: communist insurgency

      • Chinese revolution

      • Latin America

    • By early 1990s, communist third world revolutions seemed to have …

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    Post-revolutionary Governments

    • Even though revolutionaries advocate the broad distribution of wealth, they tend to find after taking power that centralizing accumulation is more practical.

      • Gives the state more control of …

      • New elite may begin to look like …

    • Impact of …

    • Marxist strategies have …