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The North-South Gap CHAPTER TWELVE Dr. Clayton Thyne PS 235-001: World Politics Spring 2009 Goldstein & Pevehouse, International Relations , 8/e Student notes version State of the South World’s poor region states called:

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the north south gap

The North-South Gap


Dr. Clayton Thyne

PS 235-001: World Politics

Spring 2009

Goldstein & Pevehouse, International Relations, 8/e

Student notes version

state of the south
State of the South
  • World’s poor region states called:
    • Third world countries, less developed countries (LDCs), underdeveloped countries (UDCs), or developing countries
  • Scholars do not agree on
  • About a billion people live in abject poverty – no access to basic nutrition and health care
    • Concentrated in ____________________
    • Two decades ago, similar situation in _______________, but average income per person there has increased
    • Every 6 seconds…
    • 5 million children…
state of the south3
State of the South
  • Millennium Development Goals
    • Sets targets for basic needs measures to be achieved by ________
  • The 5 regions of the global South differ on poverty reduction, income level, and growth.
basic human needs
Basic Human Needs
  • Food, shelter, and other necessities
  • Education allows a new generation to meet over basic needs and more through the demographic transition.
basic human needs6
Basic Human Needs
  • Children suffer from hunger in the global South.
  • Health care
  • Safe water
    • Importance of NGOs:
  • Shelter
  • War is a leading obstacle to the…
  • Disasters
world hunger
World Hunger
  • Of all the basic needs of people in the global South, the most central is food.
    • Malnutrition:
    • Hunger:
    • 820 million people (1 in 8 worldwide) are …
  • Rural communities and farming
    • Colonialism disrupted…
    • Shift to commercial farming (cash crops); displacement of subsistence farmers from the land.
    • Impact of international food aid on…
rural and urban populations
Rural and Urban Populations
  • The displacement of subsistence farmers leads to massive population shift.
    • Urbanization:
  • Capital accumulation is concentrated in ______.
  • Influx of people can cause difficulties.
      • Slums
  • Land reform
women in developing countries
Women in Developing Countries
  • Economic accumulation in poor countries is closely tied to the status of women in those societies.
  • Hold inferior social status to men in the countries of the South (more so than in the North)
  • Discrimination against girls is widespread in education and literacy.
  • Work of international agencies to help women
migration and refugees
Migration and Refugees
  • Millions of people from the global South have crossed international borders, often illegally, to reach the North.
  • The home state – no obligation to…
  • Migration produces complex patterns of…
  • Most industrialized states try to limit immigration from the…
migration and refugees14
Migration and Refugees
  • Migrants are distinguished from refugees
    • Refugees are people fleeing to find …
  • Number of refugees in 2006 was…
  • Kurds in Turkey –
  • Palestine -
  • Economic impact
  • Nationalism:
theories of accumulation capitalism
Theories of Accumulation: Capitalism
  • Capital:
  • Capitalism
    • Based on liberal economics stressing …
    • System of private ownership of capital that relies on …
    • Views the global South as …
    • Cycle of accumulation depends on …
    • Concentrates __________________
    • No state is purely capitalistic
    • Principles of capitalism underlie the global economy with its great disparities of wealth
theories of accumulation socialism
Theories of Accumulation: Socialism
  • Socialism – concerned with the …
    • Sees the North-South divide as more of a …
    • Believes capitalists exploit …
    • Generally endorses the use of the …
    • Does not exist anywhere in pure form.
    • In theory, central planners are supposed to use resources in a rational way that maximizes overall efficiency.
      • Russia and Eastern Europe:
      • China:
      • Privatization
  • Does not mean socialism is dead: New mixes of socialism and capitalism are being created.
theories of accumulation the world system
Theories of Accumulation: The World-System
  • The global system of regional class divisions has been seen by some IR scholars as a world-system, or a capitalist world economy.
    • View is _____________ in orientation; global level of analysis
    • Class divisions regionalized
      • Third world regions …
      • Industrialized regions …
      • Class struggle between the two
    • Semiperiphery:
  • Actual patterns of world trade support the world-system theory to some extent
    • But the shift of export-oriented manufacturing from the industrialized countries to Asia reflects globalization
  • Imperialism structured world order starkly around the …
  • At the same time, imperialism depends on the …
world civilization
World Civilization
  • North America
  • Europe
  • China and Japan
  • Latin America
  • Africa
  • Arab caliphate and the Middle East
  • Europe
history of imperialism 1500 2000
History of Imperialism 1500-2000
  • European imperialism
    • 15th century, with the development of oceangoing sailing ships in which a small crew could transport a sizable cargo over a long distance
    • Decimated indigenous populations
  • Decolonization
  • 19th century
  • 20th century
effects of colonialism
Effects of Colonialism
  • Being colonized had a devastating effect on a people and culture.
    • White domination seen as normal after …
    • Negative economic implications
    • Positives of colonization
    • Anti-colonial movements
postcolonial dependency
Postcolonial Dependency
  • Accumulation in the global South did not take off once colonialism was overthrown.
    • Left few people with the experience to …
    • Economies had been narrowly developed.
    • Inherited borders that were drawn in …
    • Government corruption of …
postcolonial dependency28
Postcolonial Dependency
  • Dependency theory
    • Dependency as a situation in which …
    • A dependent country must borrow capital to …
  • Types of non-colonial dependency
    • Enclave economy
    • Nationally controlled production by …
    • Penetration of national economies by …
revolutionary movements
Revolutionary Movements
  • Political revolutions seek to change the …
  • Social revolutions seek changes in the …
  • Cold War years: communist insurgency
    • Chinese revolution
    • Latin America
  • By early 1990s, communist third world revolutions seemed to have …
post revolutionary governments
Post-revolutionary Governments
  • Even though revolutionaries advocate the broad distribution of wealth, they tend to find after taking power that centralizing accumulation is more practical.
    • Gives the state more control of …
    • New elite may begin to look like …
  • Impact of …
  • Marxist strategies have …