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Collecting web resources : selecting, harvesting, cataloging

Collecting web resources : selecting, harvesting, cataloging

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Collecting web resources : selecting, harvesting, cataloging

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  1. Collecting web resources : selecting, harvesting, cataloging Plans for a web resources collection program at Columbia University Libraries Robert Wolven April 2010

  2. Terminology • Project Program • Web archiving Collecting web resources

  3. Program Steering Committee Robert Wolven (Associate University Librarian for Bibliographic Services and Collection Development) Stephen Davis (Director, Columbia Libraries Digital Program) Pamela Graham (Director, Area Studies and CHRDR) Kathryn Harcourt (Director, Original and Special Materials Cataloging) Alex Thurman (Web Collection Curator) Tessa Fallon (Web Collection Curator) Melanie Wacker (Metadata Coordinator) Robert Wolven April 2010

  4. Overview Why collect web resources? Why the initial focus on human rights? What we’ve done so far What we plan to do What we hope to accomplish Robert Wolven April 2010

  5. Why collect web resources? Libraries build research collections by selecting, acquiring, describing, organizing, managing, and preserving relevant resources Libraries have stable models for collecting non-digital print resources–the roles of selectors, acquisition departments, catalogers, and preservation units are well-understood Robert Wolven April 2010

  6. Why collect web resources? • For commercial digital resources, a different model has emerged, involving: • resource bundling • licensed access rather than physical receipt • vendor-supplied cataloging • collective preservation efforts (LOCKSS, Portico) Libraries’ financial investment in these resources has ensured that they are managed Robert Wolven April 2010

  7. Why collect web resources? • What about non-commercial web resources? • Many have high research value • May supplement or replace existing print resources • But as yet we have no common model for: • Identifying relevant resources • Integrating access with other collections • Securing permissions for harvesting • Preservation • Disclosure Robert Wolven April 2010

  8. Web archiving organizations • International Internet Preservation Consortium (IIPC) • Members include over 30 international libraries and the Internet Archive. Has working groups devoted to Standards, Harvesting, Access, and Preservation. • Living Web Archives (LiWA) • Consists of 8 European institutions. Dedicated to technical advancements in web content capture, preservation, analysis. Robert Wolven April 2010

  9. Web archiving projects • Domain-wide • Internet Archive’s Wayback Machine • National Library of Sweden’s Kulturarw3 • Event-based • Library of Congress’s Minerva (elections, Iraq war, Hurricane Katrina) • Thematic • University of Texas’s LAGDA (Latin American Government Documents Archive) & LAGRA • North Carolina State Government Web Site Archives Robert Wolven April 2010

  10. CUL program objectives Make non-commercial web resources an integral part of Columbia’s collection building Move web resource collection from a project-based activity to part of routine workflow Develop complementary and collaborative approaches with other research institutions Robert Wolven April 2010

  11. Project components • Selection • Permissions • Harvesting and archiving • Description and organization • Disclosure • Making content available for use • Assessment Robert Wolven April 2010

  12. Human rights at Columbia • Institute for the Study of Human Rights • Columbia Law School, Human Rights Institute • Center for Human Rights Documentation & Research (CHRDR) CHRDR houses the physical archives of Amnesty International USA, Human Rights Watch, and the Committee of Concerned Scientists Robert Wolven April 2010

  13. Human rights web resources • Sources • Governmental • Inter-Governmental Organizations (IGOs) • Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) • Academic institutes, libraries • Blogs, news sites • Types of content • Annual reports, country reports, case studies, news bulletins, legal instruments, statistics, video, audio, images, maps Robert Wolven April 2010

  14. Human rights: Scope Broad multidisciplinary subject—but main tenets are elaborated in the 30 articles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UN, 1948) Freedom from slavery, torture, discrimination, arbitrary arrest Rights to equal protection, fair trial, movement, asylum, property, work, marriage, freedom of thought, freedom of expression Robert Wolven April 2010

  15. Columbia Web Collection: Beyond Human Rights • Themed Collections • Emerging church (Burke Library of UTS) • Historic preservation (Avery Architectural Library) • Institutional Collection • Columbia Website • “Rescue” Collection • Imminent risk, academic value • Exploratory • Seeds for future collaborations • Pathway for (non-Columbia) document deposit into Fedora

  16. Delicious Social Bookmarking

  17. TMG bookmark

  18. Web content tagging • Descriptive metadata elements tagged for each site: • Content type • Organizational type • Organizational home (country) • Geographic focus (region and/or country) • Thematic focus • Language(s) • Organizational name (i.e. website name) • Authorized heading for organization (if in NAF) Robert Wolven April 2010

  19. Web content tagging • Administrative aspects tagged: • Amount of print titles by organization already in our OPAC, CLIO • Website itself already in CLIO? • NAF record exists for organization? • Initials of selectors who submitted/approved site • Test crawls run? • Robots.txt restrictions found on site? • Record migrated into CLIO? Robert Wolven April 2010

  20. HRW Nomination Forms

  21. Internet Cataloging Request

  22. Selection • Prioritize resources to determine appropriate treatment • Highest priority candidates for archiving: NGO-produced resources from countries without strong national archiving programs, particularly sites viewed most “at-risk” • Governmental, IGO, and academic websites, or NGO websites based in Western Europe and Australia will be cataloged, but have lower priority for archiving Robert Wolven April 2010

  23. Selection Issues • Scope: What size collections? • Scale: Selector-shaped vs Selector driven • Collaboration: Discipline driven vs Institution driven

  24. Permissions • Secure explicit permissions agreements with organizations for which Columbia holds physical archives • E-mail request for permission to archive • In context, where applicable (e.g., HRWA, CHRDR) • In language of organization • If no response, follow-up request, referencing intent to proceed if no objection Robert Wolven April 2010

  25. Permissions • Principles for non-intrusive harvesting (see Section 108 Study Group Report) • Respect robots.txt restrictions • Frame harvested content to clearly indicate its nature • Link to original site as well as archived content • Remove harvested content upon request by site owner Robert Wolven April 2010

  26. Permissions Tracking

  27. Permissions Issues • Best approach, scalable approaches • Acceptable risk: • Who’s authorized to say yes? • For what content? • Permission for how long?

  28. Commercial hosted services • Archive-It (mostly academic and government clients) • Hanzo Archives (mostly corporate clients) • OCLC Web Harvester (bundled with CONTENTdm) • Web Archiving Service (California Digital Library) Robert Wolven April 2010

  29. Locally run harvesting tools • Open source • Web Curator Tool (developed by IIPC) • NetarchiveSuite (Danish national libraries) • HTTrack (free offline browser utility) • Commercial • WebCopier Pro (made by MaximumSoft) Robert Wolven April 2010

  30. Archive-It • Advantages • Hosted, requires no installation or local technical support • Provides crawling and long-term storage • Short learning curve—you can begin crawling sites immediately • Good customer support • Good help wiki • Software is actively upgraded, often based on partner feedback • Archived content can be migrated out of Archive-It into locally hosted options if desired • Includes partner page with public access to all archived content, and a customizable template for partners to use to create their own branded portal page Robert Wolven April 2010

  31. Archive-It • Drawbacks • Lack of flexibility in crawl management • Crawls managed by frequency, not by seed • Reports based on crawls, not seeds • No built-in crawl quality assessment module • No permissions module • Archived content can’t be easily moved from one “collection” to another • No automatic metadata extraction from crawled sites • Partner-applied metadata not used by search engine Robert Wolven April 2010

  32. Archive-IT Admin Console

  33. Archive-It Host Report

  34. File Type report (excerpt)

  35. Archive-It PDF Report (excerpt)

  36. TMG Live Site

  37. Archived Site

  38. Crawling & Harvesting Issues • How deep? How wide? How often? • Technical problems: • Robots.txt • Crawler traps • Spam, malware • Technical limitations • Content not captured • Site structure • Speed

  39. Crawling issues: one site • Parallel sites: • .com, .net, .org • http vs https • languages • Problematic or unwanted content: • /comment/reply • /feed (atom, rss) • Badly formed links: • /ru/ru – unproductive crawl extension

  40. Crawling issues: RegEx • Use “regular expression” to limit .*(/comment/reply|/feed|/ar/ar/|/en/en/|/es/es/|/fr/fr/|/ru/ru/|/ar/en/|/es/en/|/fr/en/|/ru/en/|https).*

  41. Access and Metadata: Current Status • Site-Level MARC records • Collection browsing via Archive-It • Full-text searching via HRWA portal

  42. Migrating data Mapped metadata from web survey to access-level MARC records Migrated delicious-to-MARC records into CLIO Light revision of records, including establishment of NAF headings where lacking Robert Wolven April 2010

  43. OPAC Record

  44. Archive-It Landing Page

  45. Archive-It HRWA Collection Page

  46. HRWA Search Page

  47. Description and organization Our approach to description will be multi-faceted and experimental Access-level MARC records for all selected sites will be generated from metadata Harvested sites with complex content groups will receive finding aids, treating the sites as analogous to archival collections (as in the “Arizona model”) Robert Wolven April 2010

  48. Access Routes • Columbia Web Archive • Theme Web Collection Portal (e.g., HRWA) • WorldCat, Library Catalog • Hosted Repository (Archive-It) • Local Repository (Columbia Academic Commons) • Local/Consortial Integrated Discovery Platform

  49. Access via HRWA Portal • Full-text search • Index search • Faceted browse • Pulldown • --Geographic • --Topical • --Genre/Form