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Sport-Related Concussions. Definition of Concussion. Post-traumatic impairment of neural status/brain is violently shook against the skull Also called Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (MTBI) Defined also as he got his “clock cleaned”, “bell rung ”; “leveled” , “seeing stars” .

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definition of concussion
Definition of Concussion
  • Post-traumatic impairment of neural status/brain is violently shook against the skull
  • Also called Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (MTBI)
  • Defined also as he got his “clock cleaned”, “bell rung”; “leveled”, “seeing stars”
symptoms of concussions
Symptoms of Concussions
  • Headache
  • Confusion/Disorientation
  • Tinnitus
  • Dizziness
  • Nausea
  • Amnesia
    • Post-traumatic
    • Retrograde
  • Irritability
  • Hyper-excitability
  • Loss of Consciousness
  • Unsteadiness
  • Visual Disturbance
  • Difficulty Concentrating
leading sports for concussions
Leading Sports for Concussions
  • Football, Ice Hockey, men’s and women’s soccer
  • Football is the leading sport for sport-related concussions in the US for men and soccer for women
  • Study showed that female athletes are twice as susceptible to concussions as males
second impact syndrome
Second-Impact Syndrome
  • Cerebral edema: accumulation of excessive fluid in the substance of the brain.
  • Sustaining a concussion before the first concussion has fully healed
  • Abrupt increase in blood pressure
  • Accompanied by post-traumatic systemic catecholamine surge
  • Creates intracranial pressure (ICP), resulting in cerebral blood expansion
sis continued
SIS continued
  • Usually fatal
  • Non-fatal: permanent severe functional disability
  • Severe: no permanent functional disability, but severe injury
head fatalities in football
Head Fatalities in Football
  • Table 1
  • Football Fatalities, 1945–1999*
  • Head: 491
  • Cervical Spine: 116
  • Other: 105
  • 65% of concussions occur during competition
  • 35% occur during practice
  • 90% of concussions occur without loss of consciousness
  • Accounts for 10% of all high school sports injuries
impact on hockey
Impact on Hockey

NHL Protocol for Concussion Evaluation and Management Protocol was revised Mar. 16, 2011

This revision takes players suspect of concussions to a quiet place to be evaluated

Traditionally, players were examined on the bench

e.g. Sydney Crosby, Eric Lindros, Scott Stevens, etc.

problems with the protocol
Problems with the Protocol
  • It is up to the player himself/herself to report symptoms to team physicians
  • If the player does not report symptoms, it will be assumed that there is no injury
  • Symptoms may not always be immediate, some cases have been reported that it can be up to 3-4 days until symptoms occur
  • Outside pressure/financial obligations
concussion tests
Concussion Tests
  • Concussion testing have become mandatory for all sports
  • Take test before season starts when you aren’t concussed
  • When concussed, you must match the score you got when first taking the test
  • The test includes…
long term consequences
Long-term Consequences
  • Leads to chronic depression, Alzheimer’s Disease, and Parkinson's Disease
  • e.g. Mohammad Ali
  • Suffers dementia pugilistica, also known as “Punch Drunk”
  • Paranoia, rampant mood fluctuations, alcohol and drug abuse, major depression with suicidal ideation, suicide attempts or completed suicide
consequences cont
Consequences cont.
  • Onset usually occurs around the age of 42