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Linkage Institutions. ?. Linkage Institutions. ?. Basic Definition : Channels through which people’s concerns become issues on the policy agenda In the U.S. , includes The MEDIA, POLITICAL PARTIES ELECTIONS, & INTEREST GROUPS. Linkage Institutions. Includes : * Newspapers

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Linkage Institutions


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    1. Linkage Institutions ? AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Linkages

    2. Linkage Institutions ? AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Linkages

    3. Basic Definition: • Channels through which people’s concerns • become issues on the policy agenda • In the U.S. , includes • The MEDIA, POLITICAL PARTIES • ELECTIONS, & INTEREST GROUPS Linkage Institutions AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Linkages

    4. Includes: • * Newspapers • * Television • * Magazines • * Radio • * The Internet The Media AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Linkages

    5. Enlightened understanding is one criteria • of an ideal Democracy • “Information is the fuel of democracy” The Media AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Linkages

    6. Potential Problem #1: • Increasing concentration of Media • Large corporations own a significant % • of Media outlets • Leads to similarity in news coverage The Media AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Linkages

    7. Rupert Murdoch The Media AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Linkages

    8. The Media AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Linkages

    9. Potential Problem #2: • Corporate goal = Profits • Profits require advertising • Advertising needs viewers & readers The Media AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Linkages

    10. Potential Problem #2: • Bias = stories that attract large audience • Leads to emphasis on • Violence, Disaster, Scandal • and Pictures The Media AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Democracy

    11. Potential Problem #2: • To large degree, TV defines “news” as • whatever is entertaining to the largest # • Trend has been to increase entertainment • and shorten stories & words to very brief • “sound bites” The Media AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Linkages

    12. “You simply cannot be • a well-informed citizen • by just watching the • news on TV” • Dan Rather • Long-time CBS Anchorman The Media AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Linkages

    13. Potential Problem #3: • Superficiality of political reporting • In campaigns, the focus is on: • * Day-to-day campaigns activities . . . • * Not on the substance of issues The Media AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Linkages

    14. Potential Problem #3: • Superficiality of political reporting • In campaigns, the focus is on: • * Daily standings of candidates in polls • * Known as “horse-race” journalism The Media AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Linkages

    15. “Nothing of significance • is going to be said in • 7 seconds, but this seems • to work to the advantage of • many politicians. They are not • required to say anything of • significance, and issues can be • avoided rather than confronted.” • in America” The Media Walter Cronkite Long-time CBS Anchorman AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Linkages

    16. Potential Problem #4: • Self-interested shaping of news coverage • by various groups & individuals . . . • Parties, Interest Groups, Agencies, • Individual politicians, PR firms, • Congress, the President The Media AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Linkages

    17. Roger Ailes • Media consultant to • Richard Nixon • Ronald Reagan • Bush I The Media AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Linkages

    18. Change in Presidential Coverage • “The president will not stand and be • questioned like a chicken thief . . . “ The Media AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Linkages

    19. Change in Presidential Coverage • FDR used “Fireside Chats” • & friendly contacts with • individual members of press • to reach “The People” The Media AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Linkages

    20. Change in Presidential Coverage • JFK had a friendly style • that won over many • individual journalists • Also, the media did • not cross into the • Prez’ “personal life” The Media AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Democracy

    21. Change in Presidential Coverage • Unlike now . . . The Media AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Linkages

    22. Change in Presidential Coverage • Nixon did not enjoy a friendly rapport with • members of the press • Least favorites = • Woodward & Bernstein • WATERGATE The Media AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Linkages

    23. Potential Problem #5: • “Bias” • Studies indicate journalists are more likely • to consider themselves “liberal” than • the general population The Media AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Linkages

    24. Potential Problem #5: • However, the vast majority of studies • also find that reporting is NOT • systematically biased toward a particular • party or ideology • There is something called • “journalistic objectivity” The Media AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Linkages

    25. . . . purpose is to educate and train students to become accomplished professional journalists. • The school prepares them to perform a vital and challenging function in free societies: finding out the truth of complicated situations, usually under a time constraint, and communicating it in a clear, engaging fashion to the public. The Media AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Linkages