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LOGIC. Cause it’s logical. A method of thinking/reasoning that asserts the formal structures of an argument create its validity more than the content. What is Formal Logic?. In the simplest terms, formal logic depends on if this/then this forms of thinking.

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logic

LOGIC

Cause it’s logical

what is formal logic

A method of thinking/reasoning that asserts the formal structures of an argument create its validitymore than the content.

What is Formal Logic?
what is formal logic1

In the simplest terms, formal logic depends on if this/then this forms of thinking.

  • If this can be considered true then this must be also be true
What is Formal Logic?
classic syllogism

Socrates is mortal.

  • Socrates is a man.
  • All men are mortal.
  • If it’s true that all men are mortal, and if it’s true that Socrates was a man, then it’s logically sound to suggest that Socrates was mortal.
Classic Syllogism
syllogism parts the oft unstated nature of the warrant

Socrates is mortal.

  • Socrates was a man.
  • All men are mortal.
  • Thesis (what you want to prove)
  • Warrant (the underlying assumption that connects your claim to your thesus)
  • Claim (what you feel proves the thesis)
Syllogism Parts & The Oft Unstated Nature of the Warrant
my claim

The Warrant is what makes the argument logical and the warrant(s) is what you need to discover and write about to form your argument and fill ten pages.

My Claim
4 enemies of logic

Confirmation Bias:

    • The process whereby one tends to notice and look for what confirms one’s beliefs, and to ignore, not look for, or undervalue the relevance of what contradicts one’s beliefs.

If one believes that more murders occur during a full moon, then one will tend to take notice of murders that occur during a full moon and tend not to take notice of murders that occur at other times.

4 Enemies of Logic
4 enemies of logic1

Ignorance:

    • The lack of essential background knowledge or information on a subject prior to making a judgment.

Politicians from all parties are documented as having voted for or against The Affordable Healthcare Act without having read the actual bill.

4 Enemies of Logic
4 enemies of logic2

Personal Biases and Prejudices:

    • We each have personal biases and prejudices, resulting from our own unique life experiences and worldview, which make it difficult to remain objective and think critically.

Some more liberally inclined people may not even listen to any evidence against climate change simply because that position is more likely held by a conservative.

4 Enemies of Logic
4 enemies of logic3

Testimonial Evidence:

    • Relying on the testimonies and vivid anecdotes of others to substantiate one’s own beliefs, even though testimonies are inherently subjective, inaccurate, unreliable, biased, and occasionally fraudulent.

Eyewitness claims to having seen Bigfoot, aliens, the Loch Ness monster, magic, miracles, or other extra-ordinary events does not prove these things exist.

It’s important to note that they don’t prove they don’t exist either. It’s just that the testimonial evidence is not enough.

4 Enemies of Logic
example

Thesis: Joe’s television is color.

  • Warrant: ?__________________
  • Claim: Joe bought the TV at Best Buy.
Example
example1

Thesis: Joe’s television is color.

  • Warrant: Best Buy only sells color TVs.
  • Claim: Joe bought the TV at Best Buy.
Example
example2

Thesis: Zombies need to be killed.

  • Warrant: ? _____________________
  • Claim: Zombies can’t be reasoned with.
Example
example3

Thesis: Zombies need to be killed.

  • Warrant: Violent things that can’t be reasoned with (and can’t develop reason) are too dangerous to let live.
  • Claim: Zombies can’t be reasoned with.
Example
example4

Thesis: Abortion should be illegal.

  • Warrant: ? ________________________
  • Claim: Abortion is murder.
Example
example5

Thesis: Abortion should be illegal.

  • Warrant:
    • Murder is already illegal.
    • The fetus qualifies as a life because you can only murder something this is alive.
    • The government has the right to legislate issues of life & death.
  • Claim: Abortion is murder.
Example
example6

Thesis: Circus Animals should be set free and not used anymore.

  • Warrant: ? ___________________________
  • Claim: The animals are treated inhumanly and live in awful conditions.
Example
example7

Thesis: Circus Animals should be set free and not used anymore.

  • Warrant:
    • Animals deserve and/or have to right to humane treatment
    • Animals experience pain/discomfort that we can relate to as humans
  • Claim: The animals are treated inhumanly and live in awful conditions.
Example
example8

Thesis: Gun ownership is an important right that must be protected.

  • Warrant: ? _____________________________
  • Claim: It’s so important that our constitution guarantees the right
Example
example9

Thesis: Gun ownership is an important right that must be protected.

  • Warrant:
    • The constitution’s wording/intent applies to this situation
    • The constitution’s position on guns is still relevant in our radically new historical context.
  • Claim: It’s so important that our constitution guarantees the right
Example
when warrants don t work

If a warrant doesn’t work, that particular claim is not logical.

  • That does not mean there aren’t other claims that may be logical. It’s an arguer’s job to find better claims if they want a logical argument.
When Warrants Don’t Work
when warrants don t work1

Thesis: Gay Marriage should be outlawed.

  • Warrant: All straight marriages lead to children.
    • No they don’t. The uninterested, sterile, and elderly can marry.
  • Claim: Homosexuals can’t procreate.
When Warrants Don’t Work
when warrants don t work2

Thesis: Gay Marriage should be outlawed.

  • Warrant: Marriage has one set definition that doesn’t change over time.
    • No it doesn’t. And the definition has already changed many many times throughout history. We could change it again. Doesn’t mean we should, but doesn’t mean we logically can’t.
  • Claim: That’s not what marriage is. It’s defined to be between a man and a woman.
When Warrants Don’t Work
when warrants don t work3

Thesis: Gay Marriage should be outlawed.

  • Warrant: A partner in marriage doesn’t have to give consent.
    • Yes they do. These are silly examples because dogs, tables, and robots can’t consent to marriage
  • Claim: If we allow this, then we’ll have to let people marry their dogs, or a table, or a robot and that will cheapen marriage as an institution.
When Warrants Don’t Work
when warrants don t work4

This is not to say that there aren’t possible logical arguments against gay marriage, but some of these popular ones aren’t them.

When Warrants Don’t Work
final thoughts

Logic is only one system/method of thought designed to draw conclusions.

  • Thusly, it’s only one way (not necessarily better or worse than any other way) of making sense of the world. People will value it differently.
  • Most people are actually driven by a complex mix of intuition, emotion, faith, and logic. I encourage you to see those as not incompatible.
Final Thoughts
deductive logic

Move from assumed to be true general principles to specific application.

  • Houses seem to give candy out on Halloween; therefore, if I knock on that door I will probably get candy.
  • Serial Killers probably had troubled childhoods, so I will study some and see.
Deductive Logic
inductive logic

Move from specific examples to asserting a general princuple

  • I went to 5 houses in a row on Halloween and got candy; therefore, I logically assume the next house will give me candy too.
  • Case studies of serial killers X, Y, and Z all had troubled childhoods. Therefore, I assume that serial killers tend to generally have troubled childhoods.
Inductive Logic
deductive vs inductive lead to different ways to write about your claims

Thesis: Using Social Networks are crucial to getting a job in today’s economy

  • Deduction: Employers are increasingly checking to see if a potential employee has a social network presence. Therefore, it’s a good idea to join Linkedin.com to give you practice in crafting your online persona.
  • Induction: Looking at the data, popularity, and success rate of Linkedin.com, logically suggests that potential employees should start practicing the art of crafting your online presence.
Deductive vs Inductive Lead to Different Ways to Write About Your Claims