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  1. In the name of GOD The Abstract Titles of Computer Workshop S.M.Mirzababaei 1388-89

  2. History • 2000 BC - Abacuses • 1614 AD - Slide Rules • 1640 AD - Adding Machine • 1671 AD - Calculating Machine • 1745 AD - Jacquard Machine • 1812 AD - Differential Machine • 1822 AD - Analytic Machine (Charles Babbage) • 1937 AD - Mark-1 • 1944 AD - ENIAC • 1949 AD - EDVAC • 1951 AD - UNIVAC • 1953 AD - IBM The Abstract Titles of Computer Workshop

  3. Computer Generations • 1st: Electro Mechanical • 103 Instruction Per Second • 2nd: Transistor Based • 106 Instruction Per Second • 3rd: IC Based • 109 Instruction Per Second • 4th: VLSI Based • 1012Instruction Per Second • 5th: Artificial Intelligence, Optical Systems, Wireless Communications, … The Abstract Titles of Computer Workshop

  4. Essential Parts • Vacuum Tubes • Resistor • Capacitor • Relay • Transistor • ICs • Diode • Crystals • Some Sensors • LEDs & LCDs • … The Abstract Titles of Computer Workshop

  5. Bytes & Gates • Wire States: • Analog • Digital • Multi States: 0,1, 2, 3, 4, … • Binary Digital • One (1), Zero (0), High Impedance (Z) • Important Gates are: • AND, OR, NAND, NOR, NOT, XOR, XNOR • 1 bit = one binary digit • 4 bits = 1 Nibble • 8 bits = 1 Byte • 16 bits = 1 Word • 32 bits = a double word • 64 bits = a quad word The Abstract Titles of Computer Workshop

  6. Intels 80x86 Family µProcessors • 4004 • 8008 • 8080 • 8085  Z80 • 8086  8088 , 8087 • 80186  80188 (µControllers) • 80286 (Protected Mode) 80287 • 80386 (Full Protected Mode)  80387 • 80386DX, SX • i486 (80386+387) OverDrive • i486DX,SX, i487SX, DX/2, DX/4, DX/5 • Pentium • MMX • Pentium Pro • Pentium II • Celeron/ Xeon • Pentium III • Processor Unique ID • Pentium IV • Pentium D • Dual Core/Core Duo/Core 2 Duo/Centrino/ Intel M Tech • Quad Core/Hex Core/Oct Core (Westmere,Nehalem) • Multi Cores • Many Cores The Abstract Titles of Computer Workshop

  7. Other µProcessor Families • FreeScale PPC401 • Apple/Motorola/IBM • IBM Cell Engine • Dual Hammer Mode • FreeScale/STI Cell Engine / Play Station 3 • GPGPUs / 2.1 Billion Tr/Chip • Single Precision/ Dual Precision • Catrina /Rita 2006 • Super Computers • Blue Gene/L/C/P/Q • Earth Simulator • Road Runner • IRIMO • Software • Google’s Map/Reduce Model • Cooperative Parallelism • MPI, PVM, Charm++ The Abstract Titles of Computer Workshop

  8. Parallel Processing • Micro Computers • Workstations • Mini Computers • Computers & Main Frames • IDCs vs. HPCs • Super Computers • Clusters • MPPs • Constellations • Grid Computing • Volunteer Computing • SETI@Home • BOINC • Cloud Computing • Google App Engine • Pervasive Computing • Aura / Aura@Home • Sixth Sense • … The Abstract Titles of Computer Workshop

  9. PC Family • IBM • PC • XT • AT  ISA • PS/2 (Micro Channel Architecture) • … • EISA • VESA • Local Bus • Intel • PCI • Multi voltage, Multi Bus Width, Multi Speed • PCI –X • PCI Express • AGP The Abstract Titles of Computer Workshop

  10. Memories • ROM • RAM • RAM Buffering • ECC/FEC • 64/72/80 Bits Data Bus, The Abstract Titles of Computer Workshop

  11. ROM • MROM • PROM(27xx) • EPROM (OTP) • EPROM (UV)(27xx) • EEPROM (E2PROM)(28xx) • FE2PROM(28Fxx, 29xx) • Charge Pump • SD/ MMC/ Sony’s Magic Gate/ … • Solid State HardDisks • Size, Price, Life Time, … The Abstract Titles of Computer Workshop

  12. ROM Contents • POST • INIT • Configuration • Ascii Table & font • Plug & Play • Boot Strap • Setup Program • BIOS • Dual Bios The Abstract Titles of Computer Workshop

  13. RAM • SRAM (61xx,62xx) • Cache Memory (L1/L2/L3) • NVRAM • VRAM (Dual Port RAM) (Samsung’s WRAM) • DRAM(41xx) • FPM • EDO • SDRAM/PBSRAM/RDRAM/SGRAM • DDR/DDR2/DDR3/ • Double Data Rate-Double Pumped-Dual Pumped-Double Transition • QDR/GDDR2/GDDR3/GDDR4/GDDR5 • PS3’s XDR = DDR2 = GDDR4 • MDDR • CAS Latency/t RAS to CAS Delay/t RAS Precharge/t Row Access Stroke • Packaging • DIP/SIP • SIMM/DIMM/EBDIMM The Abstract Titles of Computer Workshop

  14. Interface Parts • Direct Memory Access (8237) • Programmable Interval Timer (8253,8254) • Programmable Interrupt Controller (8259) • IRQs • Real Time Clock (M48T86PC1) • Programmable Peripheral Interface (8255) • USART, UART (8250/8251/16450/16550) • Floppy Controller (8271) • ChipSet (82284, … , 82371,82439, PC87306B) • Above Chips + Glue Circuits + Appropriate Buffers + Bridges • PCI Chipsets • 430HX, TX, … The Abstract Titles of Computer Workshop

  15. Peripheral Devices • Keyboard • Mouse • Joy-Sticks • Printers • Laser Jet/ Bubble Jet/ Ink Jet • Plotters • Digitizers • Scanners • Touch Screens • … The Abstract Titles of Computer Workshop

  16. Peripheral Devices • Serial Port • Start Bit • Stop Bit (1, 1.5, 2) • Parity Bit • Speed • Byte Wide • Example • 8n1, 7e2, … The Abstract Titles of Computer Workshop

  17. Peripheral Devices • Parallel Port • IEEE1284 • SPP • PS/2 • EPP • ECP • DMA • Hand Shaking The Abstract Titles of Computer Workshop

  18. Peripheral Devices • RS232C • Carrier Detect • Rxd • Txd • Data Terminal Ready • Ground • Data Set Ready • Request To Send • Clear To Send • Ring Indicator • 0,1  +12v, -12v • D type connector The Abstract Titles of Computer Workshop

  19. Peripheral Devices • Modems • Half Duplex, Full Duplex • MNP1,2,3,4,5 • Error Correction Codes and Error Detection Codes • Data Compression • Asymmetric Transition in 56.7Kbps Modems • E1 Lines • ADSL • ITU: V standards The Abstract Titles of Computer Workshop

  20. Peripheral Devices • Fax • V.17 14400bps, V.29, V.27, V21 • Fax Groups I, II, III, IV • Class I, Class II (binary file transfers, and unattended fax transmission) • Voice Modems • AT Commands Summary • ATZ, ATH, ATL, ATS, ATD, ATX, ATU, ATO, +Fclass, +++, … The Abstract Titles of Computer Workshop

  21. Peripheral Devices • Sound Card • Frequency Modulation Synthesizer • DSP • Mixer • Wave Tables • PCM, ADPCM • Sound Parameters • Mono, Stereo • Sampling Rate • Sampling Size • Sampling Time • Sound Volume on Disk • File Formats • MID, Wav, MP3, … The Abstract Titles of Computer Workshop

  22. Peripheral Devices • Microphones • Piezo Electric • Electro Magnetic • Carbon • Speakers • Tweeters • Ordinaries • Sub Woofers The Abstract Titles of Computer Workshop

  23. Peripheral Devices • Cathodic Ray Tubes (CRTs) • Liquid Crystal Displays (LCDs) • Plasma Display Panel (PDPs) • Electro Luminescence Display (ELDs) • Vacuum Fluorescence Displays (VFDs) • Field Emission Displays (FEDs) The Abstract Titles of Computer Workshop

  24. Peripheral Devices • Cathodic Ray Tubes (CRTs) • Horizontal Signal and Vertical Signal • Interlacing and non Interlacing • Coloring • Canonic Rays • Calibrated Colors • X-Ray • Dot Pitch • Refresh Rate, … • Resolution • Flat Screens The Abstract Titles of Computer Workshop

  25. Peripheral Devices • Liquid Crystal Displays (LCDs) • Active and Passive • Polarization • Coloring • View Angle • Speed • Power Consumption • Weight The Abstract Titles of Computer Workshop

  26. Peripheral Devices • Graphic Card • Controller • DDC Line and PnP • α Channel • Text and Graphic Modes (AN, APA) • Screen Size and its Memory Requirement • Accelerators (MPEG,3D, …) • MultiMonitoring The Abstract Titles of Computer Workshop

  27. USB • Half Duplex • USB 1, 1.1, 2, 3 • Transfer Rate, 1.5 (Low Speed,1K5D-), 12(Full Speed, 1K5D+), 480(High Speed), 4800 Mbps (Super Speed, 2010) • Host/Device/OTG • OHCI/ UHCI/ EHCI • Classes • MSD, CDC, Style Image, Printer, HID, HUB, . . . • SCSI Stack • Hot Plug • Plug & Play • Power Consumption • Cable Length, D+/D-, Vcc, GND • NRZ, JK States • 126 Devices • Signaling • Enumeration, Configuration • Transactions: Control, Isochronous, Interrupt, Bulk • End Points, Pipes, Frames The Abstract Titles of Computer Workshop

  28. FireWire • iLink, IEEE 1394 • 400 Mbps, 800 Mbps, 3.2 Gbps • Master/Slave • Read • 5000 files, 300 MB 30% better than USB • 160 files, 650 MB 70% better than USB • Write • 5000 files, 300 MB 16% better than USB • 160 files, 650 MB 48% better than USB The Abstract Titles of Computer Workshop

  29. Wireless Technologies • Infra Red (Line of Sight) • Blue Tooth 802.15 • GSM, UMTS, EUMTS(Mobile 4G) • WiFi/WLAN 802.11 • WiMAX 802.16 The Abstract Titles of Computer Workshop

  30. Infra Red • Straight • P2P • Remote Control • Far (10um, warm), Near (0.5 um, cold) • IrdA • Serial Port Stack • TxD & RxD • SIR up to 115kbps • MIR up to 1.152 mbps • FIR up to 4mbps • VFIR up to 16 mbps • XP Support: IrLPT, IrOBEX, ImageIrTran_P, IrCOMM, IrNET The Abstract Titles of Computer Workshop

  31. Blue Tooth • Ericson Company, Sony, IBM, Nokia, Intel, Toshiba, … • Peer To Peer • Spread spectrum 2.402 to 2.480 • Piconet PAN • Dane King • Privacy Issues • Classes: • 100 m, 10m, 1m • 768 kbps • Security • W/O • Before Connection • After Connection • Symmetric Encryption by 128 bits key • 48 bits address • IEEE 802.15 The Abstract Titles of Computer Workshop

  32. WiMAX • Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access 802.16.d • IEEE 802.11 a,b,g • Up to 70 Mbps • Up to 70 miles • Line of Sight 10 - 66 GHz • Non Line of Sight 2-11 GHz • Video on LAN • Wireless MAN • Ad hoc Networks The Abstract Titles of Computer Workshop

  33. Storage Devices • Floppy Disk • 5¼ , 3½ • FAT • Hard Disk • ESDI, ST506 • Drive Geometry CHS • Large / LBA • Zone Bit/ Landing Zone/ Interleaving/ Pre Comp/ Auto Park • One Sided Buffer/2 Sided Buffers • ANSI X396.2 Committee • IDE/ EIDE • Access Time, Data Transfer Rate • SCSI • SCSI2,WideSCSI, Fast SCSI, Ultra SCSI, Ultra 2 • PCB Assembly, HAD, Clean Room The Abstract Titles of Computer Workshop

  34. Optical Drives • AT Attachment • PATA, SATA • SATA, SATA II, SATA III • Hot Plug, Driver, RAID, Low Cost, Air Cond., Cable Length • CD Silver/Gold • Double Sided/Single Sided • WORM • Super CD • DVD +/- • DVD Ram • Blu Ray • M/O Disks • Magnetism / Polarization / Warm Laser The Abstract Titles of Computer Workshop

  35. Disk Partitioning • FDISK • Format /S /U • Active Partitioning • Disk Assignment The Abstract Titles of Computer Workshop

  36. Network • Topologies • Start, Bus, Ring • IP vs X.25 • Telnet, Ftp, Web, Gopher, Mail, Trackle, … • VRML • RFS, NFS,IPC, RPC • File Servers, Print Servers • Daemons • PPP The Abstract Titles of Computer Workshop

  37. Operating Systems • Script Programming • History • Unix, VMS, DOS, PCMOS, Windows, NT, Linux • Important Commands • Help, CD, Mkdir, Cat, Time, … • Protected Mode • OS Installation • Script Programming • Multi Task, Multi User, Real Time OS • Remote Control • Windows, Linux, DOS • Multi Boot • Hypervisors • Type I, Type II The Abstract Titles of Computer Workshop

  38. Script Porgramming • Linux Shell Script • Windows Script Programming • DOS Batch Files The Abstract Titles of Computer Workshop