Biochemistry MLBC-201 • Prof. Dr. Shehata El Sewedy • Dr. Tarek El Sewedy • Dr. HewidaFadel
Aim of the biochemistry course Biochemistry offers some of the major current intellectual challenges and a potential source of great practical benefit for mankind. Developments in Medicine and Biotechnology in the last few years have resulted from the application of molecular biology. We can now manipulate genes and modify proteins and have analysed the complete sequence of the human and other genomes. These developments emphasise the power of the molecular approach to biological systems, which is the essence of Biochemistry.
There are four major classes of biomolecules: carbohydrates, proteins, nucleotides, and lipids.
Carbohydrates • Carbohydrate is an organic compound comprising only carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, usually with a hydrogen:oxygenatom. Carbohydrates have several roles in living organisms, including • storage of energy • structural components as cell membrane • immune systems
Proteins • Proteinsare the most complex and varied class of biomolecules; they are large polymer composed of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen. Most proteins contain Sulfur, phosphorous, iron zinc and copper. Upon hydrolysis proteins produce monomer units called amino acids. Amino acids have an amino group NH2- on the alpha carbon located next to the carboxylic group.
Lipids Lipids are a broad group of naturally-occurring molecules which includes fats, waxes, sterols, , fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E and K), monoglycerides, diglycerides, phospholipids, and others. The main biological functions of lipids include energy storage, as structural components of cell membranes, and as important signal molecules.
Nucleic acid A nucleic acid is a macromolecules composed of chains of monomeric nucleotides. these molecules carry genetic information or form structures within cells. The most common nucleic acids are deoxyribonucleic acid(DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). Nucleic acids are universal in living things, as they are found in all cells and viruses.
Genetic code Gene expression protein Disorder in genetic code (sequence of deoxyribonucleic acids) or in transcription or translation lead to diseases.
Enzymes as Biological Catalysts These biological catalysts are physiologically important because they speed up the rates of reactions.
Enzymes in the Diagnosis of Pathology The measurement of the serum levels of numerous enzymes has been shown to be of diagnostic significance. This is because the presence of these enzymes in the serum indicates that tissue or cellular damage has occurred resulting in the release of intracellular components into the blood.
Vitamins and minerals • Vitaminare organic compounds required by an organism as a vital nutrient in limited amounts. • Vitamins must be obtained from the diet . • Mineralsplay an important role in various vital activities as calcium, potassium, sulfur, sodium, …etc.
Several elements include Potassium, Sodium, Calcium, Sulfur and others play an important role in the body structure and function.