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Unit 5: America Builds an Empire. What is foreign policy?. A nation’s policies toward other countries. Elements of Foreign Relations.

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what is foreign policy
What is foreign policy?
  • A nation’s policies toward other countries
elements of foreign relations
Elements of Foreign Relations
  • International Anarchy: the idea that while citizens in each country are subject to law, the governments of nations are not subject to international laws in all cases
  • Balance of Power: when one nation becomes too powerful, other nations band together to protect themselves or make sure that the one nation does not over-throw them
more elements of foreign relations
More Elements of Foreign Relations
  • Control of US Foreign Policy: the Constitution divides this power between Congress and the President
    • President negotiates treaties/Senate ratifies
    • President commands troops/ Congress pays
    • Congress declares war/President commands troops
more elements of foreign relations1
More Elements of Foreign Relations
  • Traditional Foreign Policy: America felt protected by the 2 oceans; Washington warned us to stay out of other nations’ problems and remain isolated
  • National Interests: American interests include:
    • Security from attack
    • Protecting American investment
    • Promoting American democracy
the spanish american war 1898
The Spanish-American War, 1898
  • Origins: (Cuba is a Spanish colony)
    • In 1894, the US raised it’s tariff (tax) on the sugar imported from Cuba
    • This lead to a decline in Cuban revenues and increased unemployment and unrest
    • Cuban refugees, living in the US, are led by Jose Marti to sail back to Cuba and begin a revolution
    • Marti declared Cuba independent in 1895
    • Spain sent troops to put down the rebellion
spanish american war
Spanish-American War
  • Spain’s attempts to end the rebellion were brutal
  • Entire villages and towns in Cuba were forced into camps surrounded by barbed wire and starved into submission
  • These events raised humanitarian concerns in the United States
spanish american war1
Spanish-American War
  • Joseph Pulitzer’s New York World and William Randolph Heart’s New York Journal were 2 of the major newspapers that covered the story
  • These papers deliberately sensationalized the news
  • They depicted the Spanish as murderous brutes in order to sell more papers
spanish american war2
Spanish-American War
  • Yellow Journalism: unbalanced, sensationalized reporting intended to sell more papers
  • This type of news reporting gave Americans an unrealistic view of the events in Cuba
  • Americans believed that it was important to intervene to protect the Cubans
triggering events the de lome letter
Triggering Events: the De Lome Letter
  • De Lome is the Spanish Ambassador to the US
  • A letter he wrote to a friend in Havana was stolen by Cuban rebels and sent to US newspapers
  • The letter was critical of the US and specifically called President McKinley “weak”
  • De Lome resigned from office
u s s maine
U.S.S. Maine
  • American naval vessel was sent to Cuba to protect American lives and property during the revolution
  • While in port in Havana, the ship exploded
  • The Maine sunk and 258 U.S. sailors died and more were severely injured
  • Hearst and Pulitzer both blamed the Spanish for the explosion
  • Heart offered $50,000 reward for capture of the Spaniards responsible
  • The cause of the explosion is still unknown today
spanish american war3
Spanish-American War
  • Public outcry against Spain as a result of the Maine grew
  • “Remember the Maine”
  • Spain agreed to US demands for a cease fire with Cuban rebels
  • April 20, 1898 McKinley asks Congress to declare war on Spain
  • Congress votes to declare war on April 21, 1898
war in the pacific
War in the Pacific
  • The first battles in the Spanish-American war were fought in the Philippines
  • Commodore George Dewey sailed the US fleet into Manila harbor and opened fire on the capital city
  • Dewey destroyed the entire Spanish fleet in Manila
  • 11,000 US forces and Filipino rebels fought Spain for the next two months
  • Spanish troops surrendered the Philippines in August
caribbean war
Caribbean War
  • Admiral Sampson blockades Cuba preventing the Spanish fleet from escaping
  • A small number of professional Army officers were sent into Cuba with 125,000 volunteers
  • The volunteers were inexperienced, poorly trained, provided with inadequate weapons, and old woolen uniforms from the Civil War
teddy roosevelt
Teddy Roosevelt
  • TR serves as Asst Secretary of the Navy
  • Believes that for America to become a world power, we must improve our navy
  • Resigns from War Dept to form an all volunteer cavalry unit to fight in the S-A War
  • “The Rough Riders” are under the command of General Leonard Wood and TD
  • Along with regular army troops, they defeat the Spanish at the Battle of San Juan Hill
spanish american war4
Spanish-American War
  • July 1st: Rough Riders, 2 regiments of African-American troops, and the 9th and 10th cavalries charged up Kettle Hill and defeat Spanish troops
  • Infantry and Rough Riders attach San Juan Hill next day, defeat Spain again
  • 4 days later, Spanish Navy tries to break the blockade
  • Naval battle along the Cuban coast lasts a week.
  • Spanish fleet is destroyed
  • American troops invade Puerto Rico the next week
spanish american war5
Spanish-American War
  • Problems:
    • Yellow Fever (malaria)
    • Poor training
    • Old weapons
    • Unsuitable uniforms
    • Old officers who were more interested in telling Civil War stories than fighting (General Wheeler)
    • Delay in getting ships from Atlantic to Pacific and Caribbean….We need a CANAL!
treaty of paris
Treaty of Paris
  • The US and Spain sign an armistice resulting in a cease-fire on August 12th
  • December 10th, US and Spain meet to discuss terms in Paris
  • Treaty is signed on December 15th
  • The US Senate will have to ratify
terms of the treaty of paris
Terms of the Treaty of Paris
  • Spain agrees to give Cuba independence from Spanish rule
  • Guam and Puerto Rico will be given to the U.S.
  • Spain will sell the Philippines to the U.S. for $20 million
  • Thus ends what Secretary of State, John Hay, called “a splendid little war”
is this a turning point in american history
Is this a turning point in American History?
  • US no longer isolationist
  • US gains territories
  • US naval and military power and influence grow
  • US enters into international trade
  • US defeats European power (again)


does this event make the us into a world power
Does this event make the US into a world power?
  • Probably
  • America viewed as having both economic and military strength
  • Naval power essential for both and US navy is now the 3rd largest
what is imperialism
What is Imperialism?
  • The policy of extending a nation’s authority over other countries by economic, political, or military means
reasons for american colonial expansion
Reasons for American Colonial Expansion
  • Need for Raw Materials: industrial expansion requires coal, oil, rubber, steel, etc…
  • Need for Markets: increasing production requires new places to sell our stuff
  • Nationalism: expansion show that the US is a world power to be admired and respected
  • Strategic Reasons: the need for naval bases around the world to refuel and resupply
  • Attitudes toward other people: belief that Americans were superior to other people and that we needed to educate/train them to be more like us
alfred thayer mahan
Alfred Thayer Mahan
  • Admiral and President of the Naval War College
  • Wrote The Influence of Sea Power Upon History
  • Argued that for a nation to become a world power, a powerful navy was required
  • Colonies and naval bases around the world would be necessary to support merchant ships as well as naval vessels
  • Because the US is competing with other nations for supremacy, we should seize control of Pacific trade routes, construct a canal through Central America, and dominate the Caribbean
  • These things would give us geographic dominance over Atlantic and Pacific trade
  • T. Roosevelt was one of his followers
american anti imperialist league
American Anti-Imperialist League
  • People like Mark Twain, Andrew Carnegie, Moorefield Storey, and Henry Ford opposed colonialism
  • They felt that the United States was based on the ideals of democracy and self-government and that to impose our rule on others was hypocrisy
  • They opposed America acquiring colonies
moorefield storey
Moorefield Storey
  • First President of the NAACP
  • Spokesman for the Anti-Imperialist League
  • Gave dramatic speech in Boston warning against US colonization
results of spanish american war
Results of Spanish-American War
  • US wins!
  • US becomes a world power
  • US acquires a colonial empire consisting of :
    • The Philippines
    • Guam
    • Hawaii
    • Puerto Rico
    • Samoa
    • Midway
the platt amendment
The Platt Amendment
  • A congressional resolution passed in the U.S. Congress prior to the S-A War had guaranteed independence of Cuba
  • At the end of the war, Cubans were forced to agree to the Platt Amendment to their constitution
  • This gave the US the right to intervene in Cuban affairs at any time
the philippines
The Philippines
  • Filipinos were disappointed that the US Congress decided to annex them instead of granting independence
  • Rebels fought until their defeat in 1902
  • Hawaiian Islands had proved refueling stations for American ships for many years
  • American settlers built sugar and pineapple plantations on Hawaii
  • Missionaries were sent to convert the natives to Christianity
stanford dole
Stanford Dole
  • Queen Liliuokalani attempted to take land and power back from American planters
  • American lawyer and plantation owner in Hawaii led American landowners to over-throw Hawaii’s Queen in 1887
  • President Cleveland refused to annex Hawaii because of Dole’s actions
  • Dole became President of Hawaii
  • An important re-fueling stop for US ships
  • US won as part of the treaty ending the S-A War
  • Guam is still a territory of the United States
  • A Pacific Island group that was divided between the United States and Germany
  • Provided a valuable naval bases and re-fueling stations for American shipping
  • American Samoa is still a U.S. territory
  • Became a US possession in 1867 (before the S-A War)
  • Midway is still an important military base for the U.S. Navy
  • In china, European powers had already established “spheres of influence” by 1850
  • These would be places where they enjoyed special privileges in trade
  • The US was not a part of this, but did have an active trade network within China
  • The US feared that these other nations would work to block US trade with China
  • Sec. of State, John Hay, sought to protect US interests and business in China
  • In 1899, Hay announced America’s “Open Door Policy” in China
  • This meant that all nations would have equal footing in trade with China
  • In 1900, a rebellion erupted in China
  • Boxers, or Chinese who opposed Western influence in China, rebelled against their government
  • The Boxer Rebellionthreatened the lives of all foreigners in China
  • An international army, w/ US participation, crushed the rebellion
  • Hay announced that the US would opposed any annexation of China
  • The US opened an isolationist Japan to western trade in 1853
  • Commodore Matthew Perry landed US naval ships there to end barriers to trade
  • By the 1890’s, Japan had become the most westernized and industrial nation in Asia
  • In 1894, Japan invaded and defeated China
  • In 1905, Japan defeated Russia in the Russo-Japanese War
  • T. Roosevelt won the Nobel Peace Prize for his help in negotiating peace between Russia & Japan
america in the caribbean
America in the Caribbean
  • Reasons for US Interest/Involvement:
    • Security: keep Europe out of Western Hemisphere
    • Economic Interests: supplies of agricultural and raw materials; markets for US goods, investment
    • CANAL: S-A War demonstrated that we need a path from the Atlantic to the Pacific to speed up trade and travel (and war ships)
puerto rico
Puerto Rico
  • Became US possession at the end of S-A War
  • In 1900, Congress established a civil government there
  • Governor appointed by the President
  • Upper House of the Legislature chosen by the President
  • Lower House of the Legislature elected by the people
  • Cuba becomes a US “protectorate” due to the Platt Amendment in 1900.
  • U.S. forces remain in Cuba at Guantanamo Bay today
  • Platt Amendment was not repealed until 1930
panama canal
Panama Canal
  • US Pacific Fleet had to travel 16,000 miles to get to Cuba in the S-A War
  • This highlighted the need to improve travel between the oceans
  • The Isthmus of Panama is the narrowest point between the 2 oceans
  • Seems like the best place for a canal
panama canal1
Panama Canal
  • Panama was a part of Columbia
  • The US and Columbia entered into negotiations to build a canal
  • Meanwhile, Panamanian rebels were trying to break away from Columbia
  • TR struck a deal with the rebels
  • Roosevelt sent US warship to Panama to protect the rebels
panama canal2
Panama Canal
  • The US immediately recognized an independent Panama
  • The US was granted a 10 mile strip of land known as the Panama Canal Zone
challenges in building the canal
Challenges in Building the Canal
  • It will take 10 years to complete (1903-1914)
  • Canal is 51 miles long
  • Canal crosses 6 different elevations; had to build a series of locks to accommodate for this
  • Tropical climate!
  • Dense rainforests
  • Mountains
  • Mudslides
  • Mosquitos! Yellow Fever!
dr walter reed
Dr. Walter Reed
  • Major in the US Army Medical Corp assigned to Canal Zone
  • Discovered that “Yellow Fever” was caused by mosquitos
  • Yellow fever is one of the “hemorrhagic” diseases
  • Fever, anorexia, chills, muscle pain, headache, and nausea are symptoms
  • Liver damage and death may result
  • 20,000 deaths were attributed to Yellow Fever in building the Panama Canal
  • Worked to eliminate mosquitos and treat the sick
dr william gorgas
Dr. William Gorgas
  • Surgeon General of Army Medical Corps
  • Had all swamps in Canal Zone drained
  • Sprayed all standing water with oil to prevent mosquitos from breeding
  • Helped to discover vaccine to prevent disease
  • Still no cure today once infected
monroe doctrine 1823
Monroe Doctrine (1823)
  • America’s declaration that Europe could not establish any new colonies in the Western Hemisphere
  • America used this as justification to intervene in the Caribbean to protect US economic interests
roosevelt corollary
Roosevelt Corollary
  • Also known as the “Big Stick” Policy
  • Roosevelt said that, “he would walk softly and carry a big stick”
  • Roosevelt prevented Europe from using force to collect debts from the Dominican Republic
  • The US would act as “an international police force”
  • Roosevelt used this to justify intervention in the West indies and Central America
taft dollar diplomacy
Taft/Dollar Diplomacy
  • Taft encouraged banks to loan $ and invest in Caribbean nations
  • He used this strategy to promote US foreign policy in the region
  • When a nation, like Nicaragua, could not repay the debt, he sent US troops to collect the $
  • The US took over their railroads, customs duties, and national bank until the debt was paid
wilson and latin america
Wilson and Latin America
  • Followed pattern of both Roosevelt and Taft in dealing with Haiti, Nicaragua, and Dominican Republic
  • He sent troops to protect American interests
  • In 1917, Wilson purchased the American Virgin Islands from Denmark
watchful waiting
“Watchful Waiting”
  • When Wilson became President, Mexico was already undergoing a violent revolution
  • Instead of sending troops or recognizing the new government, Wilson waited to see what would happen
pancho villa
Pancho Villa
  • A leader of the rebellion in Mexico
  • Brought Mexican rebels across the border to New Mexico and murdered Americans
  • Wilson sent the American Expeditionary Force under General John J. Pershing to arrest him
  • Villa eluded capture
  • The US forces withdrew from Mexico in 1917 when we entered WW I