Translation Studies. 17. Lexical TOs: omission, addition and exchange of meaning Krisztina Károly, Spring, 2006 Sources: Klaudy, 2003. 1. Lexical omission. = a standard transfer operation whereby meaningful lexical elements of the SL text are dropped.
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17. Lexical TOs: omission, addition and exchange of meaning
Krisztina Károly, Spring, 2006
Sources: Klaudy, 2003
= a standard transfer operation whereby meaningful lexical elements of the SL text are dropped.
= the difference in background knowledge in SL and TL readers.
1. Omission of brand names
2. Omission of toponyms
3. Omission of toponyms and ethnonyms used in attributive function
4. Omission of institutional names
5. Omission of forms of address
6. Omission of references to SL
7. Omission of names of parts of the body
Predominant direction: from IEinto Hungarian
This operation must be used with the greatest caution, since the references to realia in the TL may be important for several reasons:
(1) the poeticfunction of SL realia (brand names, food, beverage, household goods or geographic names, etc.) may play an important role in the description of characters and situations.
(2) the atmosphere creating function of realia less familiar to the TL reader is to create 'local colour" (cf. sheriff, coyote, grizzly, prairie, savannah, mustang in Wild West novels).
(3) the informative function of SL realia is to inform us about the way of life of a SL community, their customs and habits.
(4) the culture-transmittingfunction of SL realia is to bring the SL and TL communities closer to each other and overcome communication difficulties between the two cultures.
= is a standard transfer operation whereby new meaningful elements, which cannot be found in the SL text appear in the TL text.
1. Addition in the case of brand names
2. Addition in the case of toponyms
3. Addition in the case of institutional names
4. Addition in the case of historical realia
5. Addition of names of parts of the body.
Explanatory additions are commonly used for geographical names(common in travel books)
Predominant direction: Hungarian IE
= is a standard transfer operation whereby a meaning in the SL text is replaced by another meaning in the TL text, which is seemingly different from the SL meanings but is logically related (e.g., an expression of reason may be replaced by an expression of consequences in TL).
1. Exchange of action for result
2. Exchange of result for action
3. Exchange of action for object
4. Exchange of object for action
5. Exchange of action for place
6. Exchange of place for action
7. Exchange of action for actor
8. Exchange of actor for action
9. Exchange of state for action
10. Exchange of cause for action
11. Exchange of sound for action
12. Static vs dynamic and dynamic vs static exchange