Alberto Luís González García Roberto Gallo Soljancic José Javier López Ramón Translation Studies
Outline Introduction: Translation definition. Translation vs. Interpretation. The role of translator: skills. Translation Process: specifically the different stages carried out when translating. (According to García Yebra). Comprehension stage Expression stage Type of translation: Direct vs. inverse Translation. Specialized vs. Non-specialized Translation.
Outline(II) Translation techniques: (According to Vinay and Darbelnet) Morphosyntactic Level Loan word Calque Literal Translation Transposition Equivalence Adaptation Modulation Semantic Level Expansion Reduction Compensation Translation as a tool in SLT/ SLL.
Introduction Definition of Translation Munday: “the process of turning an original or "source" text into a text in another language”. Translation vs. Interpretation Translation ---> written texts Interpretation ---> uses oral channel
1.3 The role of a translator: skills What do you need to become a good translator? 1. Complete knowledge of both source and target speech. 2. Write appropiately in both source and target language. 3. Ability to have language intuition ““to grasp various expressions, idioms and specific vocabulary and their uses”” 4. Be aware of the “”cultural divergence and diverse strategies in the source and target verbal communication”” 5. Be aware of diverse registers, styles of speaking, and social stratification of both source and target language. 6. You have to be provided with encyclopedias and bilingual dictionaries in a specific context 7. You have to take control of the different kind of speeches in both source and target language.
Translation Process: Garcia Yebra: Two stages Comprehension stage: The translator decodes the sense of the source text into an activity called semasiology. Expression stage: recodes the sense of the text in the target language.
Type of translation: Direct vs. indirect Translation: Direct: Translating from a foreign language into your mother tongue. Example: a Spanish translator who translates from English into Spanish. Indirect: Translating from your mother tongue into a foreign one. Example: a Spanish translator who translate from Spanish into English.
Type of translation: Specialized vs. Non-specialized Translation. Specialized: The translator requires an excellent quality and precision into an area of knowledge. Examples: medical translation; legal translation. Non-specialized: It is not required a great knowledge in the area to translate.
Translation techniques:The explanation of each procedure, according to Vinay and Darbelnet Two levels: Morphosyntax level and Semantic level. Morphosyntax level techniques: -Loan Word: A word taken from a language without translating it: Coyote (from Spanish), Pizza (from Italian)… -Calque: A class of loan where syntax is taken from source language and translated literally. English: week-end Spanish: fin de semana. English: science-fiction. Spanish: ciencia-ficción. Sangre azul → Blue-blood -Literal Translation: translating word by word from source to target language, respecting the collocations of the target language. English: You are rich. Spanish: Tú eres rico.
Translation techniques (II) Transposition: Translating one part of the speech to other one, without changing the sense of the message. English: out of order. Spanish: no funciona. Le gusta nadar → She likes swimming. Modulation: Variation of the message, through a change in the point of view. English: Puzzle. Spanish: Rompecabezas. You can have it → Te lo dejo.
Translation techniques (III) Equivalence: Transmiting the same situation by using different stylistic and structural resources. English: no right of way. Spanish: prohibido el paso. The Sound of Music → Sonrisas y Lágrimas. Adaptation: “Cultural equivalence”. E.G.:French talking about Belgian jokes → English talking about Irish jokes.
Translation techniques (IV) Semantic Level Expansion: needed amplification for structural reasons. Example: in Spanish is needed to specify the gender. Reduction: the same as expansion, but it is needed a reduction. Compensation: combination of the other two techniques. Tu/Usted (Sp.) → You (Eng.)
Translation as a tool for SLT/SLL SLL is the process by which people learn a second language. Translation is teached as a separated skill from L2 acquisition, as first, you have to master L2 to be a good translator.
Conclussion Remind some especifit terms: Difference between translation and interpretation Different kind of translation: Loan words Calque Etc. Specific vs non-specific translation
References www.translationcentral.com/translation_vs_interpretation.php http://ezinearticles.com/?What-Skills-Are-Required-To-Be-A-Good-Translator?&id=911804 http://www.ruf.rice.edu/~kemmer/Words/loanwords.html http://www.translationschools.org/translation/specialized/ López Guix, J.G. & Wilkinson, J.M. (1997). Manual de traducción inglés-castellano. Teoría y práctica. Gedisa http://www.jstor.org/pss/392747 http://people.umass.edu/bparient/Research/CompleteThesis-BeatrizParienteBeltran.pdf logos.uoregon.edu/research/second_language.shtml http://isg.urv.es/publicity/masters/sample/techniques.html en.wikipedia.org Stibbard, R. (1994). The Study of Translation in a Foreign Language Teaching. Perspectives: Studies in Translatology. Cordero, A.D. (1984). The Role of Translation in Second Language Acquisition. The French Review, Vol. 57, No. 3, pp. 350-355.