What is it? A South African policy of complete legal separation of the races Banned all social contact between blacks and whites Allowed the ruling white minority to control and terrorizethe black majority This is all LEGAL!
What does it look like? Write a caption for what the person in the picture is thinking…
All citizens were classified by race (LAW). A Black South African must carry a passbook issued by the white Government (LAW). Blacks were required to carry passes that determined where they could live and work.
The Group Areas Act… It forced people of certain races into living in designated areas. There were racially segregated beaches and public areas (LAW). Race laws touched every aspect of social life, including prohibiting marriage between non-whites and whites and the sanctioning of “white-only'' jobs (LAW).
The government designated white and colored areas. • This is a white school campus…look at the buildings and the field. • Schools were segregated and black schools had to teach the “white” curriculum. (LAW) • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-f60oe_xScs&feature=related (Sarafina 9:46)
The government separated residential areas. Blacks were relocated to new “homelands”…usually the poorest areas with horrible farm land (LAW). South African citizenship was taken away and black townships had curfews. These are houses in Soweto, a black township.
More Laws… Blacks could NOT vote or own property (LAW) Each black homeland controlled its own separate education, health and police system. Blacks were not allowed to buy hard liquor. They were able to buy poor quality beer Public beaches, swimming pools, bridges, drive-ins, graveyards, parks, and public toilets were segregated (LAW) Movie theatres in white areas were not allowed to admit blacks…there were practically no cinemas in black areas Restaurants and hotels in white areas were not allowed to admit blacks except as staff Black Africans were prohibited from attending white churches
Segregated public facilities in Johannesburg, 1985. Schools were segregated and students learned white curriculum and spoke in Afrikaaners language of the white Dutch settlers (LAW). Black schools were intentionally under-funded.
Apartheid video clips http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gZnetAveDLM (Cry Freedom beginning to trial) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KRaFRCAPWJk (Sarafina 16:20 – 45:26)
What was it like in South Africa? • How did the blacks of South Africa live? • What were some laws? • Describe life for the blacks… • WATCH CRY FREEDOM and make a list
Apartheid Day 2 Rise of Resistance Movements
What would you do? Would you consider fighting back? How? You have no rights, no power…
Children of Soweto, a Black township some ten miles away from Johannesburg, in 1982. The Zulu world "Amandla" scrawled on the wall means "Power". This was adopted as a rallying call in the struggle for Black rights.
Resistance Movements The African National Congress was established (ANC) organized marches, boycotts and strikes Student peaceful protests and women boycotted “white” stores and the buses Black Consciousness
Resistance 1960 Sharpeville Massacre- 69 people (women and students) killed by South African police 1974- SA expelled from UN and 1976- banned from Olympics 1976- student protests- 600 killed, thousands arrested
Steven Biko Black Consciousness leader who believed that political freedom could only come to black South Africans if and when they begin to stop feeling inferior to whites Raised awareness around world to the issue of apartheid http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yo4aX2veRVY (trial speech)
Steven Biko Arrested, put on trial, and died Sept. 22, 1977 from head wounds while in police custody Since his death in police custody, he has been called a martyr of the anti-apartheid movement While living, his writings and activism attempted to empower black people, and he was famous for his slogan "black is beautiful", which he described as meaning: "man, you are okay as you are, begin to look upon yourself as a human being". Considered a hero
Steven Biko He wasn’t the devil, as they made him out to be. He was a man, just like you and me. Yet he suffered immense pain and deadly injuries to insure no others would have to see the horror he saw before he ceased to breathe. God Bless Stephen Biko -Steve Shep Peter Gabriel and Biko
Nelson Mandela Born in 1918 to the chief of the Tembu Tribe University educated Received a law degree Joined African National Congress in 1944 and helped with the resistance movement In 1961 he created a new group within the ANC that wanted to use violent tactics He was arrested and after several trials was given life in prison for plotting to overthrow the government (for treason)
Nelson Mandela While in prison he continued to be a symbol and leader of the resistance movement President de Klerk was instrumental in releasing Mandela in February 1990 and allowing the ANC He and de Klerk worked to create a new constitution for all people in South Africa In 1994 Mandela was elected at the first black South African President…everyone voted! Mandela and de Klerk won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993 Invictushttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZSpSoO2zsug (Reason above emotion 3:56)
F.W. de Klerk South African president in 1990 (White man) Freed Nelson Mandela Ended apartheid Worked with Mandela to re-write the constitution giving all freedoms and rights Won Nobel Peace Prize with Mandela
Taking a Stand Just imagine what one person can do to make a change. All it takes sometimes is one brave person to take a stand… If Everyone Cared