Friday 4/4/14 RAP What was the NEP? Who started it? What was the Five Year Plan? Who started it? Which leader, Lenin or Stalin, do you think was a better leader for the Soviet Union? Why? Today: Review 18.4– Lenin and Stalin Ch. 18.3—Read and take notes on Mussolini and Hitler
Read Lenin and StalinCh. 18.4 • As you read about Lenin and Stalin please take notes on the following: • Describe Lenin’s leadership of the Soviet Union. • NEP—describe it • Describe the fight for control of the Soviet Union by Trotsky and Stalin. • Describe Stalin’s leadership of the Soviet Union. • Fiver Year Plan • Dictatorship • Purges • The Comintern **Who was a better leader for the Soviet Union? Why?
Lenin • Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov –known as Lenin • Introduced an economic policy called war communism in 1918. • Under war communism – the government brought a policy of nationalization (brought under state control all major industries) to the country. • Principle of those who eat must work. 16-50 must work • 1921- New Economic Policy (NEP) – Lenin allowed some private businesses to stimulate the economy, but kept steel, railroads, and large scale manufacturing under government control. • 1922- Went from Russia to the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR)
New constitution created • stated the USSR was a Socialist state- government controlled the means of production. • In theory the state was controlled by the workers, but the leaders of the Communist party controlled the workers. • Central government in Moscow still made the important decisions. • Russians remained the dominant group in the Soviet Union. (Look at map on page 567)
Trotsky • Struggled with Stalin to gain power of USSR before Lenin’s death. • Trotsky had been the most important person in the Communist party next to Lenin. • He played a key role in the Bolshevik Revolution. • Trotsky believed the theory of a permanent revolution. Wanted revolutions around the world.
Stalin • In 1922, he rose to the post of general secretary of the Communist party. • He felt it was necessary to concentrate on USSR first then spread the revolution. • As general secretary, Stalin had the power to remove officials. • He exiled Trotsky to Siberia, and then expelled him. • Trotsky went to Mexico City, where an assassin acting on Stalin’s orders found him and killed him, in 1940.
Stalin • Five Year Plans • 1928, he declared an end to NEP. • Five year period of economic goals. • All industrial and agricultural production under government control. • Provided housing, health care, and other services. • Concentrated on building heavy industry. • Consumer goods were produced in small amounts and were of inferior quality. • Mistakes were made • Nails were shipped from a nail factory many miles away when a nail factory was across the street. • It did spur industrial growth.
Collectivization, a system of farming in which the government owned the land and used peasants to farm it. • Stalin thought it would be more efficient. • Thought he could use it to intimidate the anti-Communist Kulaks—most prosperous peasants, some of which opposed collectivization. (liked Lenin) • Fighting broke out and thousands of peasants were killed or arrested and sent to Siberia to labor camps. • Stalin also crushed anti-Communist resistance in Ukraine. • Stalin promoted a “terror famine” • Causing the death of millions of Ukrainian peasants.
Results • Transformed Russia into industrial power. • Cost –millions of people died because of rural unrest and collective farms were not able to provide enough food.
Stalin’s Dictatorship • Stalin demanded complete obedience— most brutal dictatorships the world has ever seen. • Used terror to control. • Secret police were given power to scrutinize every aspect of the nation’s social and political life. • Used people to spy on each other • Children on their parents • Many sent to labor camps in Siberia or shot.
Purges • 1930s– Stalin began an attack on his enemies. • 1934—he rid himself of his opponents. • Millions of party members were expelled, arrested and put in labor camps, or shot. • Stalin turned against old Bolsheviks. • 1936 – Stalin purged, or removed Bolsheviks who opposed him. • Used psychological torture to break their wills.
Arts and Comintern • Arts • Socialist realism – glorification of Soviet heroes and achievements, while denouncing rumors about forced labor and terror. • Comintern or Communist International • Goal of the Comintern was to encourage Communist parties in other countries to overthrow their governments by any means and to establish Soviet –style regimes. • Dissolved in 1943.
In your notes—--Compare postwar life for most citizens of the Soviet Union with postwar life for people in Italy, Germany, or the Western democracies.--Begin reading Ch. 18.3– Fascist Dictatorships--pages 557 As you read take notes on --Mussolini’s rise to power and Dictatorship --The Weimar Republic --Rise of Nazism --Hitler comes to power