The “Humanitarian System” - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The “Humanitarian System”
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The “Humanitarian System”

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  1. The “Humanitarian System”

  2. Objectives • To understand the complexity of the ‘humanitarian community’ • To understand the principles and characteristics of humanitarian actors • Identify UN humanitarian coordination mechanisms

  3. Components of a Response • International Organizations (IOs) • UN humanitarian agencies/funds/ programmes • Regional Organizations • International Organization for Migration (IOM) • Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) • The Red Cross/Red Crescent Movement • Donor Governments/Agencies (USAID/DfID, etc) • Affected Population • Host Nation Organizations/Agencies • International/Regional Financial Institutions • Business Community • General Public (public opinion/direct donations) And when requested/needed… • UN/Coalition Military Forces

  4. Voluntary IMPARTIALITY: Aid is given regardless of race, creed, or nationality. NEUTRALITY: Aid will not be used to further a particular political or religious standpoint. Independence Humanity Unity Universality Guiding Humanitarian Principles

  5. United Nations: Coordination • Integrated Mission Task Force (IMTF) • HQ level: UN Agencies/Funds/Programs, Secretariat Departments • Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) • UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) • Emergency Relief Coordinator (ERC) • Relief web: • Consolidated Appeals Process (CAP) • UN Country Teams • UN Agencies, Funds, Programs in country • UN Lead Agency • UN Humanitarian Coordinator • Shepherds coordination process • UN Security Coordinator (UNSECOORD) • Responsible for UN Staff Security in the field • Joint Logistics Centers (JLC) • WFP led (Mozambique, AFG) • Humanitarian Information Centers • Who’s Doing What Where? (Kosovo, AFG)

  6. warehouse beneficiary origin UN NGO Humanitarian Logistics • Ad hoc and horizontal; situation/personality/funding dependent • Military assets will be LAST RESORT • Able to take bigger risks • Rely on commercial contracting • Transport • Material Handling Equipment • Storage • Delivery through distribution; chain of custody

  7. Broad Definition: Every organization in society which is not part of government, and which operates in civil society1 Who they are… Skilled professionals to volunteers (local and expatriate) Why they respond… Humanitarian Principles and Geneva Conventions Host nation agreement and/or CNN Effect Some claim the “right” of intervention Diverse sizes/programmatic focus International, regional, national or community (local) interests Implementing partners of UN/Donor agencies UN Agencies/Red Cross are not NGOs! The “NGO Community” 1 Source: The Commonwealth Foundation, February,1996

  8. Advocacy Press international community for action on particular issues Development knowledge of pre-existing disaster levels of basic service Disaster Relief Attempt for programs/actions to be “Apolitical” food/relief are “above the battle” Human Rights Organizations - Speak out policy: Monitor actions of politicians, military, police, other organizations, etc. Indigenous Many are implementing partners for int’l NGOs community level knowledge of actors and customs NGO Typesno strict categories – often based on programmatic/regional focus

  9. NGO Strengths • Critical beneficiary-level work • Less bureaucratic/more cost-effective • Access to local knowledge • Neutrality essential to security NGOs Weaknesses • Not homogenous system • Lack of collaboration • Failure to see the ‘big picture’ • Government $$ erodes independence • Can be perceived as threat to host nation Source: Paula Hoy, Players and Issues in International Aid, 1998

  10. NGO funding sources • Government Donors: Give with humanitarian objectives in mind but may be constrained by other political/policy issues • USAID, AusAID, ECHO, Bi-lateral, etc • View NGOs as critical partners in aid delivery • Identify gaps in humanitarian response and target aid to fill gaps • Will have some form of accountability mechanism • Implementing partners of UN Agencies • Foundations • Individuals/general public • Effect of donor fatigue and/or lack of strategic interest on NGO operations? • COMPETITION FOR FUNDING

  11. Major Government Donors to NGOs • ECHO • European Community Humanitarian Office • JICA • Japanese International Cooperation Agency • AusAID • Australian Council for International Aid • DfID • UK Department for International Development • USAID • United States Agency for International Development • CIDA • Canadian International Development Agency

  12. NGO Coordination • VOLUNTARY • AS NEEDED • CONSENSUS AND PERSONALITY DRIVEN • Strategic level coordination • IASC, InterAction, ACFOA, VOICE, etc. • Tactical level, typically will coordinate around sectoral or functional areas, i.e. • Health, Wat/San, Food/Nutrition, logistics, etc. • Some by policy will not collaborate with uniformed/armed military • NGOs may have own coordination mechanism separate from the UN.

  13. Major Int’l NGOs in Emergencies • CARE • World Vision • Catholic Relief Services • Save the Children • International Medical Corps • Médecins sans Frontières • Doctors of the World • World (IRISH) Concern • Adventist Dev. & Relief Int. • International Rescue Committee • Joint Relief International • Mercy Corps • Action Interational Contre la Faim • Concern • World Relief • OXFAM • Lutheran World Relief • Refugees International • American Friends Service Committee • International Aid • American Refugee Committee

  14. Humanitarian Coordination - AFG SECTORS/FUNCTIONS: REGIONS: • Food • Non-Food Items (NFI) • Shelter • Health • Nutrition • Water & Sanitation • Education • Mine Action • Eastern • Central East • Central (Kabul) • South • West • North • North East December 01

  15. UN MISSION IN TINDORO Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG) Deputy SRSG Chief Military Observer Component Head Humanitarian Component Head UN Administration Component Head Civilian Police Component Head Human Rights Component

  16. UN Humanitarian Coordinationin Tindoro Region • UN Humanitarian Coordinator • Reports to SRSG, no authority over UN Agencies/NGOs • UN Humanitarian Operations Center (HOC) • Coordination focal point at national level for UN Agencies/participating NGOs - HOBART & • COORDINATION STRICTLY VOLUNTARY • UN Regional Coordination Offices • National Capitals (HOC located at this level) • Northern Border Region (Queensland) • Southern Border Region (Fingal) • UN Joint Logistics Center (JLC) • Focal point for UN requests for civil-military defense assets • Can provide information on MSRs and logistics hubs

  17. THE FOG OF RELIEF: International Relationships During Disasters Affected Country Requirements NGO Red Cross/ Crescent INT’L MILITARY FORCES CIMIC, CMOC, etc) NGO NGO NGO Donor NGO UNHCR UN Coordination: HOC, OSOCC, etc. ICRC NGO DONOR WFP UNICEF DONOR Private Donors

  18. Civil-Military Relations • ‘Cultural’ level • “tree-hugging” NGO with no discipline • “jar-head” soldier trying to control everything • Professional level • different operating cultures and systems • different acronyms • different “end-states”

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  20. NGO Training • RedR • Security Management Workshops • Transport/Access in Emergencies • Site Selection and Planning • People in Aid • World Vision Security Training • Individual organization training/recruitment policies • i.e. OXFAM GB: job applicants require knowledge of Sphere Standards

  21. Guidelines for Military Support • Last resort – which means all civilian / humanitarian alternatives have been exhausted • Unique capability – which means no appropriate civilian humanitarian resources exist which can do the task • Timeliness – the urgency demands immediate action • Clear humanitarian direction in the use of the assets • See: Oslo Guidelines and UN Secretary-General’s Guidelines for Afghanistan

  22. Coordination Considerations • Establish common AORs • Establish liaison at all levels (strategic to tactical) • Compatibility of communications • Understand each other’s mission: Early agreement of roles (capabilities/constraints) • Coordination is consensus driven; personalities important • Civil-Military interface: level of representation often not as important as responsiveness • Consider the “market prices” for translators, rent, etc. • INFORMATION: Timeliness and accuracy…declassify information and push to the tactical level as early as possible

  23. Selected NGO/Red Cross/Donor web sites International Council of Voluntary Agencies (ICVA) InterAction Voluntary Organizations in Cooperation in Emergencies (VOICE) Australian Council for Overseas Aid (ACFOA) The Sphere Project International Committee of the Red Cross _____________________________________________________________________________________________ US Agency for International Development (USAID) European Commission’s Humanitarian Aid Office (ECHO) Australian Government’s Overseas Aid Program (AUSAID)

  24. Selected UN System web sites Humanitarian Information Center - Afghanistan United Nations Joint Logistics Center Relief Web and UN Office of the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs Online United Nations System Locator United Nations United Nations Children’s Fund UN Development Program UN High Commissioner for Human Rights UN High Commissioner for Refugees World Food Program