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KT 4054

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  1. KT 4054 Computer Systems Organization and Architecture Topic 1: Design Method DR. NASHARUDDIN ZAINAL

  2. What is a system? • What do the following systems have in common? • __________ system • Solar system • Home __________ system • __________ control system

  3. Plumbing System

  4. Solar System

  5. Home Network System

  6. Inventory Control System

  7. Definition of a System • “A systems is a collection of __________ linked together and __________ in such a way as to be __________ as a single unit.” • Linked components of a system also define the __________ for the system • The __________ is anything outside of the system

  8. General Representation of a System

  9. System Decomposition • Components • May be __________ or • May be __________ • Decomposition • The division of a system into its __________ and __________ • __________

  10. System Architecture “The fundamental properties, and the patterns of relationships, connections, constraints, and linkages among the __________ and between the __________ and its __________ are known collectively as the architecture of the system”

  11. Abstractions of Systems • How are the following two __________ of a business system different from one another? • How are these __________ different from the real business system?

  12. Business Organization Chart

  13. Business Application Architecture

  14. IT System Architectures • __________ processing systems • Client-Server Computing • 2-tier architecture • 3-tier architecture • N-tier architecture • Web-Based Computing • __________Computing

  15. Client-Server Computing • A program on a __________ computer requests services from a program on a __________ computer • Examples: • Email services, file services, print services, directory services, Web services, database services, application services, remote access services

  16. Basic Client-Server Architecture

  17. Advantages of Client-Server Architecture • __________ of services permits • easier administration of services by IT professionals • easier availability and location by users • consistency of resources, such as files and data, can be managed and assured • more efficient and cost-effective hardware procurement through purchasing a small number of very powerful computers

  18. Clients and Servers on a Network

  19. Basic Personal Computer System

  20. Mainframe Computer System

  21. Major PC System Components

  22. Typical Desktop PC

  23. Basic CPU-Memory-I/O Pathway*

  24. Bus • Connect CPU and __________ • _______________: on same bus as CPU/memory or separate bus • Physical packaging commonly called __________ • Also called system bus or external bus • Example of a broadcast bus

  25. Modern Personal Computer General Bus Interface Configuration

  26. Motherboard • Printed circuit board that holds CPU and related components including backplane

  27. Bus Hierarchy • __________ bus: on-chip • __________ bus (backside bus) • __________ bus (front-side bus) • connects the memory subsystem and processor • __________ bus • Connects I/O to the CPU and memory • Connects all peripheral cards and connectors • Examples: PCI-Express, PCI

  28. PCI Bus Connections

  29. I/O Bus Architecture • Consists of an I/O device, I/O device __________, system bus, and a device __________ • Device driver • __________ that controls the I/O devices • Common interface buses • USB – Universal Serial Bus • SCSI – Small Computer System Interface • SATA – Serial Advanced Technology Attachment • IEEE 1394 - Firewire

  30. Root Hub Hub Hub USB • Multipoint bus • __________ provide multiple connection points for I/O devices • Supports up to __________ devices • USB-2 data transfer rate up to 480 Mbits per second Topology Example Hub

  31. SCSI Bus • ANSI standard but multiple variations • Really an I/O bus rather than simple interface • Supports multiple devices from a single SCSI port

  32. USB and FireWire (IEEE 1394) • Both __________, multipoint bus specifications • _______________ devices w/o powering down • Packet protocol for isochronous data transfer • Isochronous: delivery at regular time intervals • Guarantee specified throughput

  33. USB vs. FireWire • __________: high-speed data transfer • 480Mbits/sec • __________: proposed standard • Data transfer up to 4.8 Gbits per second • __________: high-speed data transfer, i.e., full motion video with sound • 400 Mbits/sec to 3.2 Gbits/sec

  34. Typical FireWire Configuration • Network-like characteristics • Device controllers independent

  35. Channel Architecture • Used in ______________________________ • Channel subsystem • Separate I/O processor that serves as a CPU for I/O operations • Channel control words • Programs that transfer data between memory and an I/O device using DMA • Subchannels • Connected to a control unit module through one or more channel paths • Similar role to a device controller

  36. I/O Channel Architecture

  37. Clusters • ____________________ systems • Loosely-coupled computers • Each system has its own CPU, memory, and I/O facilities • Each system is known as a __________ of the cluster • Two ways to configure • Shared-nothing model • Shared-disk model

  38. Advantages of Clusters • Increased computing power by __________ the power of individual computer systems • Inherently scalable • Cheaper than using a single large computer • Used for high performance computing systems • ____________________ • Failure in one node does not bring down the entire system • Failover - processing by failed node is switched to other nodes • ____________________ • ____________________ • can be attained either through software and/or through geographically distributed location of nodes

  39. Shared-Nothing Model • High speed __________ between nodes • No sharing of __________ • Partitioning of work through division of data • Advantage • Reduced __________ between nodes • Disadvantage • Can result in inefficient division of __________

  40. Shared-Disk Model • High speed link between __________ • Disk __________ are shared between nodes • Advantage • Better load balancing • Disadvantage • Complex software required for transactional processing (lock, commit phases)

  41. Cluster Models

  42. Beowulf Clusters • Simple and highly __________ • Low cost • Networked • Computers connected to one another by a private __________ network • Connection to an external network is through a single gateway computer • Configuration • COTS – Commodity-off-the-shelf components such as inexpensive computers • Blade components – computers mounted on a __________ that are plugged into connectors on a rack • Either shared-disk or shared-nothing model

  43. Blade and Rack of Beowulf Cluster

  44. High Performance Computing • Also called ____________________ • Clusters of power machines or larger Beowulf blade clusters • Well suited for problems that can be broken into subtasks • __________ computing • Supercomputer performance through distributing CPU processing to the spare CPU cycles of personal computers connected to a network

  45. Four Levels of ComputerDescription • Global system structure • Overall system structure is defined • Major components identified • Processors (Pemproses) • Control modules (Modul kawalan) • Memory modules (Modul ingatan) • Interconnection structure (Struktur saling hubungan) • Mostly a static description -- “black box” approach • __________ level (Paras __________) • Architectural features specified • Interfaces (Antaramuka) • Instruction sets (Set arahan) • Data Representation (Perwakilan data) • More detailed individual component specification

  46. Cont. • __________ level (Paras __________) • Specify internal operation of processor-level components at the word level • Primitives: • Registers (Daftar) • Counters (Pembilang) • Memories (Ingatan) • ALUs • Clocks (Jam) • Combinational logic (Gabungan lojik) • __________ level (Paras __________) • Specify operations at the individual bit level • Gates are primitive elements • Very complex to do manually (logic minimization, etc.)

  47. Global Descriptive Tools • ____________________ • The most universally accepted method of classifying computer systems • Relies on a __________ __________ approach • Published in the Proceedings of the IEEE in 1966 • Any computer can be placed in one of 4 broad categories • SISD: Single instruction stream, single data stream • SIMD: Single instruction stream, multiple data streams • MIMD: Multiple instruction streams, multiple data streams • MISD: Multiple instruction streams, single data stream

  48. Cont. • Advantages of Flynn • Universally accepted • Compact Notation • Easy to classify a system • Disadvantages of Flynn • Very coarse-grain differentiation among machine systems • Comparison of different systems is limited • Interconnections, I/O, memory not considered in the scheme • Other global level tools • Tendency to rely on block diagrams and very coarse performance measures • Processor-memory-switch notation uses block diagrams with 7 basic component types

  49. SISD

  50. SIMD system architecture of [Fly66] SIMD