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SpEd 417/517. Multiple Disabilities at Early Childhood and Transition Level. Early Childhood. IDEA Goals of Early Intervention Maximize child’s developmental outcomes Prevent establishment of secondary disabilities Provide support to families Diminish costs of institutionalization

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sped 417 517
SpEd 417/517

Multiple Disabilities at Early Childhood and Transition Level

early childhood
Early Childhood
  • IDEA
  • Goals of Early Intervention
    • Maximize child’s developmental outcomes
    • Prevent establishment of secondary disabilities
    • Provide support to families
    • Diminish costs of institutionalization
  • Transactional approach
  • Activities and content relative to interests and when ready
early childhood1
Early Childhood
  • Role of early interventionist
    • empathetic listener
    • teacher/therapist
    • consultant
    • resource
    • enabler
    • mobilizer
    • mediator
    • advocate
  • Family centered approach
    • IFSP
    • Initial contact
early childhood2
Early Childhood
  • Intervention context
    • Natural learning opportunities
    • Interagency
  • Assessment
    • Curriculum-based
    • Judgment-based
    • Interactive
    • Norm-based
    • Systematic
early childhood3
Early Childhood
  • Instruction
    • Developmental
    • Activity-based
    • Naturalistic
    • Systematic
  • Environment
  • Inclusion
  • Transition
transition
Transition
  • Self-determination
  • Natural supports
  • Emphasis on 5 domain areas
  • Interagency collaboration
  • Funding supports
transition1
Transition
  • Outcomes
    • Supported employment
    • Supported living
    • Community participation
    • Recreation and leisure
    • Post-secondary
    • Social relationships
  • Quality of life issues
  • Services
    • Families as partners
    • Person-centered
transition2
Transition
  • Developing transition plan
    • Post-school outcomes
    • Goals and objectives
  • Instruction
    • Vocational
    • Community work experience
    • Strategies
      • Task analysis
      • Self-management
      • Productivity programming
      • Community-referenced behavior
      • Social skill training
      • Communication training
      • Mobility training
course objective
Course Objective:
  • Demonstrate a knowledge of current technological aids and equipment available for use with concomitant physical handicaps
individualized adaptation process lesson plan
Individualized Adaptation Process/Lesson Plan
  • 1. Select an environment for instruction
    • analyze sensory and motor characteristics
  • 2. Delineate the required activities and skills
  • 3. Assess performance in the environment (of person with disability)
  • 4. Identify and analyze performance discrepancies
  • 5. Select priority instructional objectives
  • 6. Develop instructional strategies

8. Use adaptations

a. generate ideas

b. design, then construct

c. outline teaching procedures

7. Teach skills directly

9. Implement and evaluate, modify and fade as appropriate

lesson plan
Lesson Plan
  • 1. Select an environment for instruction
    • Select “real world” environment in which student must learn to function
george
“George”
  • PUBLIC LIBRARY
    • enjoys listening to music and looking at magazines
    • activities were age-appropriate
    • family used the selected library
    • located near home
    • proximity to other community sites
    • low cost to use facility
    • facility open when available
lesson plan1
Lesson Plan
  • 2. Delineate the activities and skills required in the environment
    • Complete “skills inventory” by delineating activities performed and skills required by a person without a disability for functioning within the selected environment
george1
“George”
  • Choosing an audiotape
    • locate audiotape section
    • browse through audiotapes
    • select one audiotape
  • Listening to audiotape
    • locate audiotape
    • position self
    • open audiotape player lid
    • insert audiotape
    • close lid
    • put on headphones
    • turn on audiotape
    • adjust volume
george2
“George”
  • Choosing a magazine
    • locate magazine section
    • locate preferred magazines
    • select one magazine
  • Browsing through magazine
    • locate an area to sit
    • position self
    • hold magazine
    • read articles/look at pictures
    • turn pages
lesson plan2
Lesson Plan
  • 3. Assess performance in the environment
    • Take student to natural environment
    • Complete skills inventory
george3
“George”
  • Skills performed independently
    • looked at one tape
    • scanned then located the tape
    • looked at one magazine
    • looked at pictures in magazine
lesson plan3
Lesson Plan
  • 4. Identify and analyze performance discrepancies
    • Student performance discrepancies are identified in relation to how a person without disabilities would function in the environment
george4
“George”
  • Skills which George requires assistance with player
    • locate audiotape section
    • browse through audiotapes
    • position self
    • open lid of player
    • insert audiotape
    • close player lid
    • put on headphones
    • turn of audiotape
    • adjust volume
  • Skills which George requires assistance with magazine
    • locate magazine section
    • locate preferred magazine
    • locate an area to sit
    • position self
    • hold magazine
    • turn the pages
lesson plan4
Lesson Plan
  • 5. Select priority instructional objectives
    • Maintains health and vitality
    • Enhances participation in current & future environments
    • Increases social inclusion
    • Frequent and multiple applications across environments and activities
    • Essential for further development
    • Priority for a significant person in that environment
george5
“George”
  • Priority objectives
    • active participation in community setting - library
    • engaged in activity with community members
    • can use these skills across settings
    • can lead to higher level technological skills
    • George wants to listen and read magazines
lesson plan5
Lesson Plan
  • 6. Develop instructional strategies
    • Direct instruction
      • antecedent events
      • consequent events
    • Develop instructional adaptations - generate adaptations that will enable greater and more independent participation
      • provide personal assistance
      • modify skills or activities
      • use an adaptive device
      • modify physical and social environments
lesson plan6
Lesson Plan
  • 7. Direct Instruction
    • Antecedent events
      • Use of prompts
        • verbal
        • observational
        • physical
      • Prompting systems
        • least intrusive prompts
        • graduated guidance
      • Task presentation
        • massed trials
        • distributed trials
        • spaced trial sequence
    • Consequent events
      • Delivering reinforcement
      • Correcting errors
george6
“George”
  • Teach the following skills directly
    • locate audiotape
    • close player lid
    • locate magazine section
    • locate area to sit
lesson plan7
Lesson Plan
  • 8. Instructional adaptations
    • a. Providing personal assistance
      • be careful not to over-use assistance
      • consider principal of “partial participation”
    • b. Modifying skills or activities
      • changing typical skill sequence
      • opportunities for repetition
      • target priority skill and eliminate low priority skills
    • c. Using an adaptive device
      • select a pre-made adaptation
      • create an adaptation to simplify task
    • d. Modifying physical and social environments
      • make changes to physical aspects of environment
      • promote positive interdependence among student and peers
george7
“George”
  • Develop individualized adaptations
    • a. Non-disabled peer assists George to move around library
    • b. Peer chooses several age-appropriate options and George makes final selection by looking at or touching one of the options
    • c. Activate a micro-switch with controlled arm or head movement and place magazine on easel
    • d. Provide supportive positioning in library setting and ensure access to peers
assistive technology considerations
Assistive Technology Considerations
  • Activities of daily living
  • Control of the environment
  • Position and seating
  • Vision
  • Hearing
  • Recreation
  • Mobility
  • Reading
  • Learning/studying
  • Math
  • Motor aspects of writing
  • Computer access
  • Composing written material
  • Communication
lesson plan8
Lesson Plan
  • 9. Implement and evaluate, modify and fade as appropriate
    • Use of adaptive devices serve only to simplify task, not teach the student
    • Direct instruction continues to be necessary - systematic cueing and fading strategies should be designed, implemented, and evaluated
lesson plan9
Lesson Plan
  • Evaluate effectiveness of adaptation
    • performs its intended function
    • integrated into instructional sequence
    • accompanied by sufficient instruction to learn adaptation
    • facilitates independence
    • results in least intrusive assistance
    • attractive and safe
    • “fits” the specific context
    • results in acceptable rate and quality of performance
    • does not interfere with interactions
lesson plan10
Lesson Plan
  • Considerations for using adaptations
    • Active participation
    • Preference
    • Longitudinal use
    • Instructional time
    • Design and construction
    • Physical movement demands
    • Precautions
      • Over-generalizing
      • Need for systematic instruction
      • Ongoing evaluation of student performance with and without adaptation
      • Expect several modifications before most efficient match is found
    • Accessing resources
      • community
      • written
      • vendors
internet activity
Internet Activity
  • Consider domain area of selected lesson plan
  • Complete “Individualized Adaptation Process”
  • Search for adaptation options and add pictures/reference to plan
  • Provide list of resources for adaptations in selected domain area
features of assistive technology selection
Features of Assistive Technology Selection
  • System compatibility
    • Affordability
    • Accessibility
    • Platform
  • Curriculum expectations
    • IEP objectives
    • Environmental placement
  • Multi-sensory feedback
    • Visual
    • Auditory
    • Tactile
    • Movement
features of assistive technology selection1
Features of Assistive Technology Selection
  • Motor requirements
    • Decreased steps
    • Ease of use
  • Promotes communication
    • Interaction with peers
    • Receptive language
    • Expressive language
  • Improve self-concept/self-esteem
  • Supports are available
    • Easy to use/set-up
    • Time requirement
    • Attitudes
computer access
Computer Access
  • keyboard with accessibility options
  • word prediction, abbreviation/expansion to reduce keystrokes
  • keyguard
  • arm support
  • track ball/joystick with on-screen keyboard
  • alternate keyboard
  • pointing options/head mice
  • switch with morse code
  • switch with scanning
  • voice recognition software
composing written material
Composing Written Material
  • word cards/book/wall
  • pocket dictionary/thesaurus
  • writing templates
  • electronic/talking spell checker/dictionary
  • word processing with spell checker
  • talking word processing
  • abbreviation/expansion
  • word processing with writing supports
  • multimedia software
  • voice recognition software
communication
Communication
  • communication board with pictures/words objects
  • eye gaze frame
  • simple voice output device
  • voice output device with icon sequencing
  • voice output device with dynamic display
  • voice output device with speech synthesis
reading
Reading
  • predictable books
  • changes in text size, spacing, color, background
  • book adapted for page turning
  • use of pictures/symbols with text
  • talking electronic device to speak challenging words
  • single word scanners
  • scanner with optical character recognition
  • talking word processor
  • electronic books
learning studying
Learning/Studying
  • print or picture schedule
  • aids to find materials (e.g. color coded folders)
  • highlight text
  • recorded material
  • voice output reminders for assignments, tasks
  • electronic organizers
  • pagers/electronic reminders
  • single word scanners
  • hand-held scanners
  • software for concept development
  • software for organization of ideas
  • hand-held computers
slide39
Math
  • abacus/math line
  • enlarged math worksheets
  • alternatives for answering, explaining, or giving examples
  • math “smart chart”
  • money calculator/”Coinulator”
  • tactile/voice output measuring device
  • talking watches/clocks
  • calculator with or without print out
  • calculator with large keys/display
  • talking calculator
  • calculator with special features
  • onscreen/scanning calculator
  • alternative keyboard
  • math software
  • math software with manipulation of objects
  • voice recognition
motor aspects of writing
Motor Aspects of Writing
  • variety of pencils and pens
  • pencil/pen with adaptive grip
  • adapted paper (e.g. raised line or highlighted line)
  • slantboard
  • prewritten words/phrases
  • templates
  • portable word processor
  • computer with word processing
  • voice recognition software
  • talking calculator
vision
Vision
  • eye glasses
  • magnifier
  • large print books
  • CCTV (closed circuit television)
  • screen magnifier (mounted over screen)
  • screen magnification software
  • screen color contrast
  • screen reader, text reader
  • braille materials
  • braille translation software
  • enlarged or braille/tactile labels for keyboard
  • alternate keyboard with enlarged keys
  • braille keyboard and note taker
hearing
Hearing
  • pen and paper
  • computer/portable word processor
  • TTY/TDD with or without relay
  • signaling device
  • closed captioning
  • real time captioning
  • computer aided note-taking
  • flash alert signal on computer
  • phone amplifier
  • personal amplification system/hearing aid
  • FM or loop system
  • infared system
recreation
Recreation
  • toys adapted with “Velcro”, magnets, handles, etc.
  • toys adapted for single switch operation
  • adaptive sporting equipment
  • universal cuff to hold crayons, etc.
  • modified utensils
  • arm support for drawing/pointing
  • electronic aids to operate TV, VCR, etc.
  • art software
  • games on the computer
  • other software
mobility
Mobility
  • walker
  • grab bars and rails
  • manual wheelchair including sports chair
  • powered mobility toy
  • powered scooter
  • powered wheelchair
  • adapted vehicle for driving
activities of daily living adl s
Activities of Daily Living (ADL’s)
  • non-slip materials
  • universal cuff/strap to hold items in hand
  • color coded items for easier locating
  • adaptive eating utensils
  • adaptive drinking devices
  • adaptive dressing equipment
  • adaptive devices for hygiene
  • adaptive bathing devices
  • adaptive equipment for cooking
control of the environment
Control of the Environment
  • light switch extension
  • interface and switch to activate battery operated devices
  • interface and switch to turn on electrical appliances
  • radio/infrared to remotely control appliances
  • electronic aid to daily living controlled through augmentative device
positioning and seating
Positioning and Seating
  • non-slip surface on chair
  • bolster, rolled towel, blocks for feet
  • adapted/alternate chair, sidelyer, stander
  • custom fitted wheelchair or insert
examination 2
Examination 2
  • Chapters 11-21
  • Motor systems
    • Sensory-motor continuum
    • Motor characteristics
    • Motor development milestones
    • Motor terminology
    • Purposes and characteristics of movement
examination 21
Examination 2
  • Instructional programming for sensory/motor skills
  • Mapping process
  • Arousing vs. discriminating stimuli
  • Seven sensory systems
  • Atypical sensory development
  • Sensory-motor characteristics
  • Frames of reference
examination 22
Examination 2
  • Abnormal tone
  • Primitive reflexes
  • Intervention techniques
  • Cycle of abnormal development
  • Sensory and motor characteristics
  • Positioning and handling
  • Body mechanics
  • Posture and movement
examination 23
Examination 2
  • Facilitating normal postures and movement
  • Lifts and transfers
  • Mobility/Sensory functions
  • Architectural barriers
  • Personal cares
  • Dependency issues
  • Normal development
  • Adaptations
examination 24
Examination 2
  • Communication rights
  • Early development
  • Multimodal communication
  • Means and functions
  • AAC
  • Problem behavior
  • Positive behavior supports
  • Functional behavior assessment
  • Behavioral intervention plans
examination 25
Examination 2
  • Early intervention
    • Transactional approach
    • Roles
    • Context
    • Assessment
    • Instruction
  • Transition
    • Self-determination
    • Natural supports
    • Outcomes
    • Quality of life
    • Instruction
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