Era of Good Feeling A sense of nationalism promotes a unified nation that: • enables the nation to peacefully negotiate disputes with foreign powers • constructs roads and canals connecting the west and east • has a brief period of political cooperation between parties
Limited naval power of the U.S. and Great Britain on the Great Lakes... • Rush-Bagot Agreement, 1817 Convention of 1818... • gave US fishing rights off the north Atlantic coast—New Foundland/Labrador • settles border from Great Lakes to Rockies at the 49 degrees latitude. Spain gives East Florida Territory to the US • Adams-Onis Treaty, 1819.
Industrialism and the Northeast Late 1700’s -1800’s
Overview • The economy, development, and politics of the regions were determined by industrial development—i.e., manufacturing.
Those learning a new craft under a master craftsman were called... apprentices
Cities had a tendency to be established near • rivers and the sea
The rise of factories and the use of machinery in life became known as • industrial revolution
English mechanic who memorized mill plans in England and brought them to the US • Samuel Slater
Factories established themselves in cities because • they were near water • transportation • supply of workers
Aiding in the advance of industrialization was the development of the interchangeable part invented by • Eli Whitney
What was the great achievement of Francis Lowell? • He combines spinning and weaving factories into one operation.
Women who worked and lived in Lowell's factory complexes were known as • Lowell Girls
Besides women, this social group became a common source of labor . • children
Discuss how the population begins to shift as a result of factories. • Families begin to move from farms to cities. • Immigrants pour into American cities
The movement of goods and people to and fro the West depended upon reliable • transportation
Built in 1806, this route carried goods and people from Maryland to Virginia then to Illinois • The National Road
Turnpikes were... • toll roads for which people paid money to travel
The most famous canal of all is the This canal connected... • Erie Canal • Lake Erie and the Hudson River These carried water craft over hill and high places • Locks
1830’s steam powered these “iron horses” • locomotives and trains
Fastest ships on the oceans • Yankee Clippers carried people to the California gold fields
They filled American cities providing cheap labor • immigrants
Elias Howe invented: Isaac Singer: • the sowing machine • improved the sowing machine Effect: • increased the production of clothing
John Deere Cyrus McCormick • Light weight steel plow • Invented the mechanical reaper (harvester) Effect: • Made it easier to till, plant, and harvest in the vast prairies of the west.
Inventor of the Telegraph • Samuel Morse, 1844 Effect • Increased communication connected the east with the west.
Artisans (eg., carpenters) organize to improve work conditions. • Trade Unions Sara Bagley... • organized the Lowell Girls
Regarding immigration, what is a push factor? • Events that force or prompt people to leave their homeland for another. • For example: famine, war, political oppression
Regarding immigration, what is a pull factor? • Those conditions which attract immigrants from their homeland. Examples are land, jobs, political freedom, etc.
Where did most Chinese immigrants settle during the 1840-50’s? • They came to the west coast especially during the gold rush. They settled on the outskirts of mining towns and big cities. Their ghettoes were most commonly called Chinatowns.
Why did many Irish immigrate to the east coast in the 1840’s? • A blight (disease) destroyed caused potatoes to rot, thus creating a famine. What types of jobs did they assume upon arrival in the U.S.? • They often became unskilled laborers in factories, or built canals, and later, the railroads. Women also became household domestics.
Why did many Germans immigrate to the east coast in the 1840’s? • They were looking for work. Many Germans were skilled laborers. They often migrated to the Midwest and became farmers.
Two issues facing immigrants • discrimination • overcrowding in the cities
Four problem facing immigrants living in large cities • Tenements: poorly constructed apartment buildings that were overcrowded with few sanitary facilities or hot water • Public Services: lack of clean water, collection of human waster (solid or otherwise) • Disease: cholera, typhoid • Fire • Crime
Those Americans who opposed immigration were called... • ...nativists The political party that was anti-immigrant • the Know-Nothing Party
What is a reformer? • A reformer is a person or a group that desires to change and improve society.
Revival or rebirth of religious feeling in America during the late 1790’s and early 1800’s • The Second Great Awakening The preacher who excited Americans with fiery sermons that promoted personal responsibilty • Charles Grandison Finney
Prison Reformers and their goals • Dorthea Dix: promoted professional help for the mentally ill instead of imprisonment. • Josiah Quincy: wanted different punishments for juvenile offenders. • Other s wanted to eliminate overcrowding, provide sanitary conditions, and prison education.
Condition in schools across the states can best be described as: (Pick one answer)-- equally good throughout the states and regions -- equally bad everywhere-- varies state to state, region to region-- varies community to community, social group to social group Education Reform • varies community to community, social group to social group New England typically had more schools than most areas. The west and south had the least. Conditions also varied between local communities and different groups based upon sex, race, and economic class
What was the Common School Movement? Horace Mann wanted: • all children taught with equal opportunity in school. • Wanted better trained teachers and longer school year • Larger budget for education
Two names in education for women • Catherine Beecher: opened fist all female academy in Hartford, Conn. • Emma Willard (1821) Opened the first college level institution for women...Troy Female Seminary Who founded the first free American school for the deaf? • Thomas Gallaudet
Abolition is... • the reform movement determined to end slavery. Some wished to end it on religious grounds (like the Quakers) while other believed that it was unconstitutional and stood against the principle espoused in the Declaration of Independence.
What were the contributions of William Lloyd Garrison? • published the first anti-slavery newspaper, The Liberator, in 1831 • founded the American Anti-Slavery Society which demanded the immediate emancipation of slaves and racial equality. What were the contributions of Angelina and Sarah Grimke? • Two white southern sister who published anti-slavery works including the very influential American Slavery As It Is.
Former slave whose book become a best seller in Europe. Known as the most powerful abolitionist speaker. the great Frederick Douglas • published the antislavery newspaper, North Star • wrote several autobiographies pointing out the injustices of slavery • the most sought after anti-slavery orator (speaker) of his time
Who is the “female” Frederick Douglas? • Sojourner Truth: a spokesperson for abolition and women’s rights. Believed God had called her to speak out! Who is Harriet Tubman? • The most famous conductor on the underground railroad. Known as the Moses of her people
Secrete routes that escaping slaves followed north to freedom... • The Underground Railroad
Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott organize this important woman rights conventon in 1848... • Seneca Falls Convention in Seneca Falls New York This important abolitionist also attended and spoke... • Sojourner Truth This important abolitionist also attended and spoke. This important document written there outlined the social injustices toward women and 18 charges against men... • Declaration of Sentiments
Know as the “first who really stirred the nation’s heart on the subject of women’s wrongs.” Susan B. Anthony supported: • Lucy Stone • equal work, equal pay • freedom to enter traditional male dominated professions (eg.,law) • reform women’s property rights The right for women to vote was called: • suffrage • Those women who supported it were called suffragettes
Arts and Culture They believed that people could rise above materialism... Who are these folks • Transcendentalists He wrote a book called Walden. It extoled the virtue of living in nature to get in touch with God and one’s self... • Henry David Thoreau His essay proposed that to change unjust laws, citizens simply disobey them until the law becomes unenforceable. This is called.. • Civil Disobedience
Wrote the famous essay called Self-Reliance • Ralph Waldo Emerson Some transcendentalists tried living in theses idealistic communities... • utopian communes