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LECTURE # 8 : The Era of Good Feeling (1816-1828). Presented by Derrick J. Johnson, MPA, JD Advanced Placement United States History School for Advanced Studies. The Election of 1816.

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lecture 8 the era of good feeling 1816 1828

LECTURE #8: The Era of Good Feeling (1816-1828)

Presented by

Derrick J. Johnson, MPA, JD

Advanced Placement United States History

School for Advanced Studies

the election of 1816
The Election of 1816
  • President James Madison declined to run for a third term. Instead, he followed the example set by Washington and Jefferson and he decided to retire after two terms.
  • Madison all but named James Monroe as his successor, and with hiss blessings, he ran as the Democratic Republican candidate. The Federalists nominated the Senator from New York, Rufus King.
  • Monroe had a very distinguish career as Governor of Virginia, Jefferson’s Ambassador to Great Britain and Madison’s Secretary of State. He was looked upon as the latest in a line of successful Virginian Presidents. The Federalist Party, on the other hand, was in a very weakened state from their lack of support for the War of 1812.
the election of 18161
The Election of 1816
  • Monroe won his election. He defeated King with 183 to 34 electoral votes and 76,592 to 34,740 of the popular vote.
  • This would be the last election were the Federalists would field a candidate. After this election, the party would die out within four years.
the james monroe presidency
The James Monroe Presidency

President James Monroe

Born: April 13, 1758

Died: July 4, 1831

Term in Office: (1817-1825)

Political Party: Democratic Republican

the james monroe presidency2
The James Monroe Presidency

Supreme Court Appointments by President Monroe

Smith Thompson – 1823

States Admitted to the Union

Mississippi – December 10, 1817

Illinois – December 3, 1818

Alabama – December 14, 1819

Maine – March 15, 1820

Missouri – August 10, 1821

  • The election of James Monroe as President inaugurated what one newspaper editorial characterized as an “Era of Good Feeling.”
  • With no organized political opposition to stand in his way, President Monroe’s administration would usher in a new era of nationalism of the American People.
  • Further more, his eight year term would oversee the acquisition of Florida, the Missouri Compromise, and of course, the Monroe Doctrine.
the american system
The American System
  • Henry Clay and other nationalists in Congress proposed the American system in the aftermath of the War of 1812. This plan was supported by James Madison and most fully implemented by President James Monroe.
  • The purpose of this plan was to make America less economically dependent on Europe by encouraging the production of goods in the United States that had previously been imported.
  • A key centerpiece to Clay’s plan was a Second National Bank, so credit could be readily available and a rather large protective tariff, which would encourage. The Tariff of 1816 raised tariff rates to nearly 22%, providing more than adequate protection for American business interests and revenues for improvements in the internal transportation system of the U.S.
  • The Second National Bank was also chartered in 1816. These measures led to rapid economic growth in the post war years. However, the growth did not last for long.
  • The Panic of 1819 threw the American economy into turmoil. When the national bank called in its loans, many borrowers couldn’t repay them. This resulted in business failures and foreclosures.
the election of 1820
The Election of 1820
  • Despite the economic turmoil of the Panic of 1819, it looked like President Monroe faced no serious opposition.
  • The Federalist Party had became so weak and no other organized opposition was formed to fill the vacuum.
  • So confident were the Democratic Republicans in President Monroe’s re-election, that no campaign was organized and no speeches were given.
the election of 18201
The Election of 1820
  • President Monroe cruised to victory in his re-election bid. Monroe received 228 electoral votes (one shy of unanimous vote) and “108,359” of the popular.
  • Monroe would be the last President to run unopposed.
the missouri compromise
The Missouri Compromise
  • The issue of slavery was one that grew more urgent as more settlers moved westward. The big dilemma became whether a state would be free or a slave state.
  • In 1808, the further exporting of slaves was eliminated. Additional states had joined the union, some slave and some free.
  • By 1819, there were 11 free states and 11 slave states. During that year, Missouri petitioned to join the union as a slave state.
  • Debate around Missouri’s entrance was heated, because Northerners did not want to have more slave states than free.
  • Speaker of the House Henry Clay was able to broker a deal whereby Maine would enter the union as a free state and Missouri would go ahead and enter as a slave state. Furthermore, the compromise called for any other state that was north of 36 degrees would have to come in the union as a free state.
the john marshall court
The John Marshall Court
  • Despite 24 years of Democratic Republican dominance in the presidency as well as in the Congress, John Marshall and his fellow justices continued the Federalist legacy of favoring the central government and the rights of property against states’ rights.
  • After Marbury v. Madison, the Marshall Court produced a series of court decisions that expanded upon the power of the Supreme Court. These cases included:
    • Fletcher v. Peck(1810) – This was the first case that declared a state law unconstitutional.
    • Martin v. Hunter’s Lease (1816) – This case established the principle that the Supreme Court has jurisdiction over state courts.
    • Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819) – The case upheld the notion that a state can not alter a contract involing a private corporation.
    • McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) – Established that federal laws are supreme over state law and that the federal government has “implied powers” to create the second bank of the United States.
    • Cohens v. Virginia (1821) – Established that the Supreme Court could hear cases invovlving a federal question.
    • Gibbons v. Ogden (1821) – Established that Congress has broad authority in regards to exercising their commerce powers.
acquisition of florida
Acquisition of Florida
  • West Florida was controlled by the U.S. and the rest of Florida was controlled by Britain’s ally, the Spanish.
  • Florida had become a haven for runaway slaves, groups of Seminoles and white outlaws. As a result, there had become an influx in raids across the border.
  • In late 1817, Monroe ordered General Jackson to stop the raiders and to pursue them across the border.
  • In 1818, Jackson led his forces into Florida and destroyed a Seminole village, captured Pensacola, and drove out the Spanish governor.
  • Many feared that Jackson may have instigated a war with Spain and Britain. However, the British declined to intervene.
  • Fearing that the U.S. would seize Florida by force, Spain decided to give Florida to the U.S. Government in exchange for the U.S. agreement to assume $5 million in claims against Spain and to give up an U.S. claims against Texas. The deal was negotiated by Secretary of State John Quincy Adams, in 1819, and it became known as the Adams-Onis Treaty.
the monroe doctrine
The Monroe Doctrine
  • Many Latin American nations had announced their independence in the Napoleonic era, and many felt that Spain and France would return to the region to reassert their control.
  • Russia’s presents in Alaska was also a special problem for the British and Americans.
  • The British and Americans felt that they had a mutual interest in preventing the possible aggression in the Americas by other European powers.
  • British Foreign Secretary George Canning wanted the Monroe Administration to issue a joint statement warning other European powers not to intervene in South America.
  • Monroe initially agreed to issue the statement, however, his Secretary of State, John Quincy Adams, argued against the move. Adams believed that by acting alone, the U.S. could further expand its acquisition opportunities in the hemisphere. Furthermore, Britain could be counted on to use its navy as a deterrent to other European powers.
the monroe doctrine1
The Monroe Doctrine
  • On December 2, 1823, President Monroe announced the “Monroe Doctrine,” which stated that countries in the Western Hemisphere were now off limits to European control. Moreover, the doctrine asserts that the United States had the exclusive right to police concerns in that region.
  • Even though it angered the monarchs of Europe, many nations backed down from reasserting their control due to the fear of the British navy. To a lesser extent Britain was, itself, annoyed with the Monroe Doctrine.
  • However, the Monroe Doctrine would later serve as the basis for many future American military involvement in the affairs of Latin America.
the second great awakening
The Second Great Awakening
  • In the midst of the many social and industrial changes came the Second Great Awakening, which reaffirmed the role of religion in the lives of the true believers.
  • The movement began in the late 1790s and reached its zenith in the 1830s.
  • Where earlier Calvinist preachers had spoken of predestination, preachers like Timothy Dwight and Charles Finney proclaimed that one’s actions on Earth played at least some role in an individual’s fate after death.
  • There would also be revival meetings, lasting about a week, where members would faint. It would become a rural phenomenon.
the election of 1824
The Election of 1824
  • The Election of 1824 marked a major turning point. Prior to 1824, electors (who selected the president in the electoral college) had been chosen by a variety of methods. State legislatures chose many electors, although with each election the number of states using this method decreased. By 1824 a majority of states allowed voters to choose their presidential electors directly.
  • In earlier elections, Congressional caucuses had chosen their parties’ nominee, and electors (often by those same congressmen or by their friends) had not challenged their choices.
  • With more people voting directly for electors, the caucus nominee was no longer guaranteed to represent his party.
the election of 18241
The Election of 1824
  • When the Democratic-Republican Caucus chose Vice President William H. Crawford in 1824, others – among them Secretary of State John Quincy Adams, Speaker of the House Henry Clay and General Andrew Jackson – decided to challenge the nomination.
  • The results of the election produced chaotic results. Jackson received 99 electoral votes (151,271 popular votes), Adams received 84 electoral votes (113,122 popular votes), Crawford received 41 electoral votes (40,856 popular votes), and Clay received 37 electoral votes (47,531 popular votes). Jackson won a plurality in the electoral college, but he failed to achieve a majority of the electoral votes. Per the Strictures of the Constitution, the House of Representatives had to decide who the next president would be.
the election of 18242
The Election of 1824
  • This would be the second time since 1800 that the presidency wasn’t decided by the electoral college.
  • Jackson led the other three candidates in the electoral count and in the popular vote. However, a Jackson Presidency was seen as being repugnant to Henry Clay due to his personal dislike of Jackson. Clay also felt that Adams was more in line with his American System policy.
  • Opposition and accusations that the caucus system was undemocratic, brought about the demise of the caucus system.
the election of 18243
The Election of 1824
  • As a result, he threw his support behind Adams, and Clay’s supporters in the House of Representatives voted for Adams over Jackson. Thus John Quincy Adams secured enough votes to become president.
  • This election was significant for several reasons:
    • This was the second time that a president was not selected by the electoral college, but by the House of Representatives.
    • This was the last election to feature a candidate of the Democratic Republican Party. The party would dissolve into several factions.
    • This was the first election where the winner of the popular vote did not win the presidency. This phenomenon would repeat itself again in the 1876, 1888 and 2000 presidential elections.
    • John Quincy Adams was the son of President John Adams, ascended to the presidency. This was the first time that a son of a former president would become president as well. This would not occur again until 2000, when George W. Bush, son of former President George H.W. Bush, became president.
the john quincy adams presidency
The John Quincy Adams Presidency

President John Quincy Adams

Born: July 11, 1767

Died: February 23, 1848

Term in Office: (1825-1829)

Political Party: National Republican

the john quincy adams presidency2
The John Quincy Adams Presidency

Supreme Court Appointments by President Adams

Robert Trimble – 1826

  • Because of Clay’s support, Adams named him as Secretary of State. This angered Jackson’s supporters because they were aware that three of the previous presidents as well as Adams, himself, held the position of Secretary of State. Thus, the position had become viewed as a stepping stone to the presidency.
  • Jackson’s supporters labeled the Clay appointment as the “corrupt bargain,” and the controversy would overshadow Adams’ four years in office. Many historians cite the Clay appointment as a major factor contributing to President Adams’ failed bid for re-election.
  • Adams’ Presidency was impeded by a contrary Congress, that was made up of many of Jackson’s supporters who believed in states rights. He often met with a lot of resistance from his efforts to strengthen the federal government. His proposals to impose new protective tariffs, build interstate highways, and establish federal schools and research centers were all rejected.
  • Four the next four years, the supporters of Jackson did everything they could to sabotage the John Quincy Adams Presidency, constantly reminding themselves of the “corrupt bargain.”
the election of 1828
The Election of 1828
  • The Election of 1828 was a model for many political campaigns to come. President Adams decided to run for re-election as the National Republican Candidate. Andrew Jackson (and his supporters) organized the newly formed Democratic Party and he ran as their nominee.
  • Campaign rallies were held by supporters of both Jackson and Adams. Mudslinging was a daily occurrence during the campaign.
  • Jackson supporters claimed that Adams stole the 1824 election and gave too many fancy dinners; they also claimed that when he had been envoy to Russia, Adams had helped procure American prostitutes for the Czar.
  • Adams supporters said that Jackson was a murder and they accused him and his wife of adultery.
the election of 18281
The Election of 1828
  • Despite all of the mudslinging, the election was held and Jackson emerged victorious. Jackson received 178 electoral votes to Adams’ 83 votes. Jackson also received “642,553” of the popular vote to Adams’ “500,897.”
  • The Election of 1828 brought an end to the Era of Good Feeling, and from its ashes rose a new age… The Age of Jackson.