National Parks 9/26/11
What is the resource conservation ethic? • Gifford Penshall’s philosophy: People should maximize resource use based on the greatest good for everyone. • John Muir’s Philosophy: Forests are sacred for their intrinsic value, and should be preserved from the contamination of man.
What are the classifications of public land in the US? • Rangelands • National forests • National parks • National wildlife refuges • Wilderness areas
What are Rangelands? • Grasslands in tropical or temperate climates that are unfenced. • Overgrazing by cattle reduces grass cover, exposes soil to erosion by water and wind, compacts the soil
What are National Parks? • Public lands established to preserve scenic views and unusual landforms. • For the use of people’s enjoyment of ecosystems • Has distinct boundaries • Managed by National park services • 58 national parks in the US
What are National Wildlife Refuges? • The only federal public land managed for the primary purpose of protecting wildlife. • Managed by Fish and Wildlife service • 450 wildlife refuges and 28 waterfowl protection areas in the US (85 million acres)
What are National Wilderness areas? • Areas set aside to preserve large tracts of ecosystems. • Boundaries less defined than a National Park’s • Created from other public lands (usually national forests or rangelands) • Designated as “roadless”, limit human use • 95 million acres in US
What is the Wilderness Act of 1964? • Any area of undeveloped Federal land retaining its primeval character and influence, without permanent improvements of human habitation, which is protected and managed so as to preserve its natural conditions. • Allowed for Us Forest Service’s Roadless Area Review and evaluation to evaluate land for designation as “wilderness”
What is the National Park Service? • Manages the national resource lands. • Manages 391 national parks, historical parks, and national monuments
What is the National Wildlife Foundation? • Provide Fish and Wildlife services • Manage wildlife refuges
What is U.S. forest service? • Manages National Grasslands and Forests.
What is the Bureau of Land management? • Manages national battlefields, monuments, historic sites and other areas.
Federal Regulation of Land Use 9/27/11
What is NEPA? • NEPA = National Environmental Protection Policy Act • Mandates an environmental assessment of all projects involving federal money or federal permits.
What is EIS? • EIS=Environmental impact statement • Developer’s project proposal outlines the scope and purpose of the project, describes environmental context, suggests and analyzes alternatives.
What is an environmental mitigation plan? • A plan stating how it will address the project’s environmental impact.
What is the endangered species act? • 1973 law designed to protect species from extinction.
What are International Categories for Public Lands? • National Parks • Managed Resource Protection Area • Habitat/Species Management Areas • Strict Nature Reserves and Wilderness Areas • Protected Landscapes and Sea Scapes • National Monuments