The Daily Five By: Joan Moser and Gail Boushey Powerpoint prepared by: Allison Behne
Would you like to successfully… • Differentiate instruction in your classroom? • Teach children in small groups? • Confer individually with students? • Do all of this while the rest of your class is fully engaged in independent reading and writing activities?
What is The Daily Five? • The Daily Five is a literacy structure that allows for differentiation in the classroom and provides consistency. • It is an integrated literacy instruction and classroom management system for use in reading and writing workshops. • It is a system of five literacy tasks that teaches students independence.
For Teachers…. Deliver 3 – 5 whole group lessons each day Teach 3 – 4 small groups of children each day Confer with 9 – 12 individual students each day Hold all students accountable for eyes-on-text For Students… Engaged in the act of reading and writing for extended amounts of time Receive focused instruction on building and maintaining independence Receive tailored instruction through whole group, small group, and/or individual conferring, by their skilled classroom teacher, each day What sets The Daily Five Apart?
Since 1946, research shows that kids need to….* read to be better readers * write to be better writers • Reggie Routman and Richard Allington show that we are use to teaching 80% of the time and practice 20% of the time…. • Now we know it needs to be us teaching 20% of the time and students practicing 80% of the time. It is the same as sports, you have to physically practice to get better!
Literacy Block Development Over Time Seatwork Basal Program Centers Workshop Daily Five
The Daily Five is…. • Tasks • 5 tasks • System • Teaching all students independence • Structure • Providing consistency
The Daily Five does NOT hold content, it is a structure. Content comes from your curriculum. • Work on writing = structured time to write • Read to self = structured time to read
What does it look like? • BRIEF whole group instruction • One round of Daily 5 • BRIEF whole group instruction • 2nd round of Daily 5 • BRIEF whole group instruction • 3rd round of Daily 5
Brain research from Michael Grinder shows that a child’s age is equal to how many minutes of direct instruction they can stick within the upper cortex of their brain. After that time, thinking shifts to the lower cortex (which controls eating, sleeping, breathing). This is why direct instruction lessons are BRIEF!!
Why is it called The Daily Five?There isn’t time for five rounds! • It is called The Daily Five because there are five literacy components for children to choose from when they go off to work. These components are: • Read to Self • Read to Someone • Listen to Reading • Work on Writing • Working with Words • It is NOT called The Daily Five because they have to do all 5 each day.
These foundations are important to The Daily Five: • Trusting students • Providing choice • Nurturing community • Creating a sense of urgency • Building stamina • Staying out of students’ way once routines • are established
Trusting Students • Trusting children is the underpinning of what makes the Daily Five work. • When trust is combined with explicit instruction, our students acquire the skills necessary to become independent learners. • The Daily Five works because we gradually build behaviors that can be sustained over time so children can easily be trusted to manage on their own.
Providing Choice • Although giving children the power to choose makes us a little nervous, it puts them in charge of their own learning, is self-motivating, and will improve their skills. • Purpose + Choice = Motivation
Nurturing Community • A sense of community provides members with ownership to hold others accountable for behaviors of effort, learning, order, and kindness. • During Daily Five the class becomes a community that works together to encourage and support each other.
Creating a Sense of Urgency • Answers the questions “Why do we have to do it?” & “What’s in it for me?” • When people understand the reason for a task, it establishes motivation and becomes a force that keeps them persevering. • Sense of urgency comes from understanding the why.
Building Stamina • Lays the foundation for success as it gives children the support they need. • Teaching children how to read on their own for extended periods of time each day creates the self-winding learner that is actively engaged in the reading process because they have the stamina to be independent.
Stay Out of the Way • How can students make decisions on their own and monitor themselves regarding their progress if they are never given the chance to try it on their own? • After training, children understand what is expected of them, have practiced the strategies, and have built their stamina… now we need to stand back and let them be independent.
10 Steps to Teaching and Learning Independence • 1. Identify what is to be taught • Today we are going to….. • 2. Setting Purpose – Sense of Urgency • Tell the students why… • 3. Brainstorm behaviors desired using an I chart • What does it look like, sound like, feel like? • Read the whole time. • Stay in one spot. • Read quietly. • Get started right away. • 4. Model most desirable behaviors • Show what it looks like – 3 dimensional • As they do this, go over I chart and then ask: “Will ____ become a better reader if he does this?” (Self assessment is so important.)
10 Steps to Teaching and Learning Independence • 5. Model least desirable behaviors • Michael Grinder calls this “training your muscle memory”. As a child is modeling this, go through chart and ask children, “Will ___ become a better reader if he does this?” • Then, have the child show you he/she can do it correctly. • 6. Place students around the room • Children want to be comfortable • At the beginning we place them and after awhile we show them how to choose. We ask them, “Where do you read best?” • 7. Everyone practice and build stamina (3 minutes) • Don’t set timer, look for body clues.
10 Steps to Teaching and Learning Independence • 8. Stay Out of the Way • Use “the magical power of a teacher’s eye” • Watch for “The Barometer Child” • 9. Quiet Signal – Come back to Group • When stamina is broken, use signal. • 10.Group Check In – “How Did You Do?” • This is time for self reflection and sharing.
P. 28 – Although the foundations of D5 create a strong base for student independence, there are also key materials, routines, and concepts we introduce to children in the first days of school that are crucial to the success of the program: • Establishing a gathering place for brain and body breaks • Developing the concept of “good-fit” books through a series of lessons • Creating anchor charts with students for referencing behaviors • Short, repeated intervals of independent practice • Calm signals and check-in procedures • Using the correct model/incorrect model approach for demonstrating appropriate behaviors
1. Establish a Gathering Place • Open space large enough for the whole class to come together and sit on the floor. • Regardless of the age of children we teach, we always have a gathering place. • Distractions are limited and proximity allows us to check in on behavior more effectively • Students are able to turn and talk to each other, engaging everyone in the conversation of a less • Gathering on the floor signals a shift in activity and thinking • - It provides time for a change in their brain work along with much need movement of their bodies (Brain and Body Break).
2. Good-Fit Books • Research indicates that an independent-level or good-fit book for children is one they can read with 99% accuracy. (Richard Allington, March 2005) • Higher levels of oral reading error rate are linked to significant increases in off-task behavior. (Gambrell, Wilson, and Gantt, 1981) • It is essential to spend focused classroom time teaching our children to choose books that are a good fit for them and they enjoy. • There is more to choosing a good-fit book than just reading the words. A child’s purpose for reading, interest in a topic, and ability to comphrehend play a large role in finding a good-fit book.
I PICK • I choose a book • P urpose – Why do I want to read it? • I nterest – Does it interest me? • C omprehend – Am I understanding what I am reading? • K now – I know most of the words * After they grasp the concept of I PICK, have them model their book choices in front of whole class.
Setting Up the Book Boxes • Have a separate book box for each student. • Use small plastic tubs, cereal boxes, or even ask parents to send one with each child • 5 – 10 books in box • Self-selection of books depends on age • Journal and pencil • Book box has assigned spot it is kept
3. Anchor Charts • Large charts created based on what children have to say • One way to make thinking permanent and visible in the classroom • Allow class members to build on earlier learning or remember a specific lesson As each component of the Daily Five is introduced, the class comes together to make an anchor chart, which is called an Ichart. The I chart allows children’s thinking about student and teacher behaviors during Daily Five to be recorded on a chart and displayed.
4. Short Intervals of Repeated Practice • The brain receives input through 3 different external memory systems: visual, auditory, and kinesthetic. • Memory stored in the kinesthetic system evokes the longest memory. • To activate this system, kinesthetic learning experiences are provided and then labeled so children hear and feel what they are doing. This movement is stored in muscle memory and becomes part of their default behaviors.
6. Correct Model/Incorrect Model • Complete I-chart and discuss • Have one student model correctly while pointing out all of the wonderful behaviors the student is demonstrating • Then, model incorrectly… • Pick child carefully… one that would want the attention of doing it “wrong”. • Most children laugh, but deep learning occurs after the incorrect model. • After revisiting I-chart about incorrect behaviors, ask child to then demonstrate correctly. • This way, the child has shown he/she is capable of being successful.
5. Signals and Check-in SIGNALS • Teach children to quickly respond to a signal so they know it is time to gather and check back in. • You want something that will grab attention but not break the tone of a classroom. • Explain the signal and its purpose on the first day of the year. Make an anchor chart together and write down ideas about what it would look like and sound like in the room when the signal goes off. Then, practice, practice, practice! Each time revisiting the anchor chart in-between!
CHECK-IN • Teaches children to be self-reflective. • Thumb up by heart if they know in their hearts they were independent and successful. • Thumb to the side if they were somewhat independent and successful but could do better. • No thumbs down – this only gives negative attention to those who thrive on it. http://www.thedailycafe.com/members/266.cfm (1:00)
5 Tasks of The Daily Five • Read to Self • Read to Someone • Work on Writing • Listen to Reading • Word Work
Read to Self • Introduce 3 ways to read a book: • Read the words • Read the pictures • Retell a story you have heard before Follow the 10 steps of teaching independence for “Read to Self”.Introduce, set purpose, create I chart, model, practice, self-assess *Add more time each day until you hit desired goal. Continue to revisit I chart each day.
Work on Writing Create I chart of what it will look like, sound like, and feel like. It should include desired student and teacher behaviors and resemble the I chart from Read to Self. Day One - Model what to do when writing words you can't spell. Day Two – Practice where to sit & what materials to use Day Three – What to write about… Make a list of topics (vacation, dog, sisters, etc.) Make a list of forms (letters, lists, narrative) Post lists for students’ reference Day Four – Continue to teach the forms and traits of writing according to your district curriculum. * Once a focus lesson is taught, students work on writing – building stamina. * Add a few minutes each day until primary students are up to 20 min and intermediate students can sustain for 30 – 40 minutes.
Choice • We are motivated, engaged, and productive when we are in control of our schedules. Why should our children feel any differently? This is why choice is so important! • Introduce choice as one of the most exciting things ever! Let the children know you trust them to be independent during the time they work on their Daily Five choice just like they have learned and practiced. • Remind them to make a choice that feels right for their brain and their body. • Have the children close their eyes and think about which Daily they would like to begin with. Tell them to make a picture in their mind of what their body looks like, sounds like, and feels like when they are engaged in that choice. • Then, grab your check in sheet and begin! There are many different versions of a check in sheet. Use what works best for you!
Read to Someone Day One – Brainstorm I chart and teach EEKK (elbow, elbow, knee knee) Day Two – Model and practice how partners read. * Teach I Read, You Read – taking turns * Teach Checking for Understanding – asking questions about the story, “I just heard you read…” Day Three – Brainstorm and practice How to Choose Books– talk and make a deal or rock, paper, scissors Day Four – Brainstorm and practice where to sit in the room. Day Five – Model and practice “How to Choose a Partner”. Day Six - Model and practice “Coaching or Time”. Once a focus lesson is taught, students read to someone and build stamina. Each day add a few more minutes until they are up to 20 min. for primary and 30 – 40 min. for intermediate students.
Listen to Reading Day One – *Brainstorm and practice I chart, * Model and practice material setup and how to use it * Model and practice listening and following along with words and/or pictures Day Two - * Review I chart * Model and practice putting materials away neatly Day Three - * Review I chart * Model and practice listening to a short story, finishing it, and starting a new story Day Four - * Review I chart * Discuss the number of recorders/computers available Listen to reading – reviewing the I chart video http://www.thedailycafe.com/members/179.cfm?sd=68 (6:00)
Working with Words Day One - * Introduce optional materials and their locations to students. * Brainstorm I chart of how to set up materials and how to work with them independently * Model finding the materials, materials placement in the room, and setup of materials * Brainstorm chart of how to clean up * Model materials placement in the room, setup, and cleanup of the materials Day Two - * Model and practice materials setup, materials placement, and cleanup of materials * Brainstorm I chart – “How to Use Materials” * Model and practice student behaviors of how to use materials * Continue building stamina of working with materials, adding 1 – 2 minutes each day Other focus lessons for Word Work might include the following: • Add words to word study notebook that relate to the strategy taught that day • List words that belong to a pattern and add to word study notebook • Word sorts • Adding words to their collection • Practicing basic words most often misspelled Each day add a few more minutes until students are independently working with these materials for the desired amount of time.
Working with Words Ideas for Word Work: • Shell spell using spelling words or words from word wall • Playdoh (pinch and poke / roll) • Write the room • Pipe cleaners • Rainbow write • Wikki sticks • Dry erase boards • Beans • Bingo dabbers • Alphabet stamps • Magnetic letters • Clay (press in lid of coffee can and write with a golf tee) • Magnadoodle • Jr. Boggle game • Scrabble tiles • Chalk boxes (spray cardboard box with chalk paint) • Etch a sketch
Daily 5 With a Sub • Pre-type plans and fill in lessons • The children are so well trained in routine it is not hard to do! • Kids are learning as they do daily, it creates less interruption because they do their regular routine even though you are absent. • Substitutes reported back that they enjoyed D5 and many even bought book!
If you encounter problems… ask yourself these questions: • Did I allow enough time for training muscle memory? • Have I reviewed the I-charts? • Am I staying out of the way and allowing the children to work independently? • Am I allowing choice? • Are some children allowed to share each day? • Have I had behaviors modeled correctly and incorrectly? • Who can I collaborate with for support?