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WORKING SMART THROUGH TEAMWORK. A ll of us know in our hearts that the ideal individual for a given job cannot be found. He cannot be found because he cannot exist. This is why it is not the individual but the team that is key to the success of any enterprise. . Definition Of A Team.

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working smart through teamwork
  • All of us know in our hearts that the ideal individual for a given job cannot be found. He cannot be found because he cannot exist.
  • This is why it is not the individual but the team that is key to the success of any enterprise.
definition of a team
Definition Of A Team
  • A ‘team’ is defined as a group of members who must rely on group work to achieve success.
  • Members in team are organised around a common set of objectives and their work is mutually dependant.
when to form a team
When To Form A Team
  • Conditions needed for a successful team :
    • 1. A specified, measurable objective that can be best achieved by a team effort.
    • 2. Knowledge and use of various problem-solving techniques.
    • 3. An organisational culture that supports the team concept.
    • 4. Sufficient time for adequate training, debating, and discussion
key areas of resistance to teams in organisations
Key Areas Of Resistance to Teams In Organisations
  • OrganisationalStructure
  • Management and Supervision
  • Individual Workers
reasons why workers resist being in a team
Reasons why workers resist being in a team:
  • 1. Fear losing individual rewards and recognition
  • 2. Fear losing individuality
  • 3. Fear that teams will create more work
  • 4. Fear assuming responsibility
  • 5. Fear conflict
characteristics of an effective team
Characteristics Of An Effective Team
  • Common commitment and identity
  • Specific team purpose and goals
  • Size of teams
  • Skills mix
  • Team roles
  • Mutual accountability
size of teams
Size of Teams
  • For a team to be effective, there should be between 2 to 25 members
  • With the majority of them having less than 10 members.
size of teams1
Size of Teams
  • large group of more than 10 would have trouble interacting and communicating constructively.
  • harder it is to manage.
  • subgroups will emerge
  • dominated by a few talkative and aggressive members.
  • group of 4to 8 allows everyone to say something
  • Yet it is big enough for a range of specialized skills
skills mix
Skills Mix
  • 1. Technical and functional expertise
  • 2. Problem-solving and decision-making skills
  • 3. Interpersonal skills
team roles mutual accountability
Team Roles + Mutual Accountability
  • Every member of a successful team does equivalent amount of real work; all members, including the team leader, contribute in concrete ways to the team’s work product.
  • Team accountability is about the promises members make to themselves and others, promises that underpin two critical aspects of effective teams: commitment and trust.
roles within a team
  • A role is a set of expected behaviours associated with a position. Work teams have a set of expectations about how members in the team should behave in the team.
bales interaction process analysis
Bales’ Interaction Process Analysis
  • Task-related roles
  • Maintenance-related roles
  • Defensive roles
  • Dysfunctional roles

Task-related Roles:

  • Initiator – suggests new ideas, ways of doing things.
  • Information giver – offers relevant facts, information
  • Co-ordinator – brings together ideas, suggestions
  • Evaluator- measures progress, acts as time
maintenance related roles morale
Maintenance-related roles (Morale)
  • Maintenance-related Roles:
  • Encourager – praises and supports contributions of others.
  • Gate keeper – opens channel of communication, ensuring that quiet members who want to contribute can do so and close-down over-talkative members.
  • Harmoniser - helps to maintain the relationships between members by working to avoid conflict and reduce tension.
  • Group Co-ordinator – calls attention to group processes and offers suggestions about problems the group may have in functioning.
task or maintenance
Task or Maintenance?
  • “That’s a good idea, Jenny.”
  • “Tom, I think Marion would like to make a point.”
  • “Are we agreed on the proposal?”
  • “Let’s move on then.”
  • “Are you saying that storage is a problem?”
  • “Should we discuss the production issue first?”
  • “You sound disappointed with the suggestion.”
defensive roles
Defensive Roles
  • Defensive roles are behaviours intended to protect the group from anxiety.
    • Scapegoat - a member who tries to deflect the group’s feelings of failure or incompetency from the group to himself.
    • Tension reliever - jokes, fills long silences with chatter or suggests breaks. Such a role helps the team when the tension is increasing and needs to be broken.
dysfunctional roles
Dysfunctional Roles
  • Dysfunctional roles are behaviours intended to distract the team from its purpose or to inhibit the team’s progress towards its goals. Examples:
    • Blocker – raises irrelevancies or argues a point for too long.
    • Pessimist – negative about task and/or group; gloomy.
    • Aggressor - criticises or blames others in a hostile manner.
    • Rebel - breaks team norms and attacks authority.
    • Show-off -draws attention away from the team’s purpose.
    • Lobbyist- puts personal goals ahead of team’s goals
    • Recognition seeker - themselves ahead of needs of team.
belbin s team role theory
Belbin’s Team Role Theory
  • Disciplined, reliable, conservative and efficient. Turns ideas into practical actions.
  • Somewhat inflexible. Slow to respond to new possibilities.
  • Mature, confident, a good chairperson. Clarifies goals, promotes decision-making, delegates well.
  • Can often be seen as manipulative. Off loads personal work.
  • Single-minded, self-starting, dedicated. Provides knowledge and skills in rare supply.
  • Contributes only on a narrow front. Dwells on technicalities.
belbin s team role theory1
Belbin’s Team Role Theory
  • Challenging, dynamic, thrives on pressure. The drive and courage to overcome obstacles.
  • Prone to provocation. Offends people's feelings.
  • Creative, imaginative, unorthodox. Solves difficult problems.
  • Ignores incidentals. Too pre-occupied to communicate effectively.
  • Extrovert, enthusiastic, communicative. Explores opportunities. Develops contacts.
  • Over-optimistic. Loses interest once initial enthusiasm has passed.
belbin s team role theory2
Belbin’s Team Role Theory
  • Sober, strategic and discerning. Sees all options. Judges accurately.
  • Lacks drive and ability to inspire others.
  • Painstaking, conscientious, anxious. Searches out errors and omissions. Delivers on time.
  • Inclined to worry unduly. Reluctant to delegate.
  • Co-operative, mild, perceptive and diplomatic. Listens, builds, averts friction.
  • Indecisive in crunch situations.
communication skills in teams
  • Speaking Skills
  • Supportive Communication
    • An open supportive team encourages people to offer suggestions and solutions and to be part of the team process.
    • Supportive communication is genuine, spontaneous and non-evaluative.
    • Supportive communication creates a climate of trust, respect and cohesiveness within the team.
group decision making methods
Group Decision-Making Methods
  • Majority rule
  • Compromise
  • Consensus
  • a. Majority rule: Outcome: Win-lose
  • b. Compromise: Outcome: Lose-lose
  • c. Consensus: Outcome: Win-Win
activity reaching consensus
Activity: Reaching Consensus
  • To be involved in decision-making processes
  • Instructions
  • On your own, decide on the criteria you feel are essential according to the information given below. Put your answers in the first column.
  • Next, discuss and agree on an acceptable list. Use the consensus reaching method to decide. Put the group’s decisions in the second column.
activity reaching consensus1
Activity: Reaching Consensus
  • An anonymous donor has decided to make two $50,000 Engineer of The Year Awards to your polytechnic, one to a male and one to a female engineer whose professional and social lives best exemplify the phrase ‘an engineer of our times.’ Your group is a committee appointed by the donor to establish seven criteria by which nominees for the awards should be judged.