The Internet Mr. Sutfin Room 837
Unit Topics: The Internet • Components of the Internet • Effective search techniques • Information Literacy • Basic HTML
Objectives • You will be able to demonstrate the following skills: • Describe the major events in the development of the Internet • Evaluate information found on the WWW
Objectives • You will be able to identify three types of search tools. • You will be able to apply effective search strategies on the World Wide Web. • Manipulate images to maximize quality while reducing file size • You will be be able to list and describe several aspects of the Internet. • You will be able to describe the technology needed to connect to the Internet. • You will be able to explain the parts of a URL. • You will be able to use web browsers and other Internet tools to access information on the web.
hyperlink Internet world wide web URL domain Internet Protocol ftp WYSIWYG html browser ISP dial-up dedicated connection gif jpeg Vocabulary
Start-up In your composition book write down 5 things that you know about the Internet.
The Internet • The Internet. • Definition-A network of networks connecting a vast number of computers from around the world. • Internet Protocols • Definition- a set of rules that govern the working of the Internet. • Examples • http • Protocol for the WWW • hypertext transfer protocol • Rules for the transfer of hypertext files • FTP • file transfer protocol • Rules for transferring large files
The Internet • Hardware of the Internet • Client Computers • Computers generally found in homes • Server Computers • Computers used to provide services on the Internet • Routers / Hubs / Switches • Equipment that manages the flow of information around the Internet • Wire • Fiber Optic • Copper • Wireless • Network device • Modem:A Modulator/Demodulator (MoDem)that communicates with the network • NIC Card:Network interface card-communicates with the network
Aspects of the Internet • World Wide Web- Hypertext based • Newsgroups (Usenet)- online discussions • File Transfer Protocol-Sharing files on the Internet • eMail-text communication between computers • Telnet-live text based connection to a computer
The Internet http WWW ftp File sharing Usenet Newsgroups eMail Telnet
Aspects of the Internet: World Wide Web • This is commonly referred to as the Internet however the WWW is only part of the Internet. • To access the WWW you must use a browser of some sort. There are many to choose from but the most popular are Netscape and Internet Explorer. • The WWW employs a protocol called http or hypertext transfer protocol.
Aspects of the Internet: Newsgroups • Newsgroups are similar to message boards on the WWW. People are allowed to post messages that discuss a wide range of topics. • A discussion group will typically deal with one specific topic. (ex. Filemaker Pro CDML) • Newsgroups use a portion of the Internet called Usenet.
Aspects of the Internet: File Transfer Protocol • A client/server protocol for exchanging files with a host computer. • Using a client application, a user logs into a server to add files to the server or retrieve files.
Aspects of the Internet: Wide Area Information Services • WAIS is a search engine developed for the Internet. It allows one to search the complete text of a document.
Aspects of the Internet: Gopher • A document retrieval system from the University of Minnesota. Using Gopher, a user can access files from many different computers by looking through hierarchical menus to find specific topics. A document may be text, sound, image, or other type file. • A program called Jughead can be used to search for topics found within Gopher files. Gopher sites can now be accessed through the World Wide Web.
Aspects of the Internet: Telnet • A text based method of connecting to and managing a computer on a network.
What is a web Address? What’s in a name? • The URL (uniform resource locator) is just a technical word that means the address to a web page on the WWW. • A domain name is one example of an URL. (www .yahoo.com) • http://www tells the browser that the document is located on a web page • .com , .edu , .net and others are the domain extension
http://www.yahoo.com ftp://abcdomain.com Examples of Internet Domains Internet protocol • Internet designation • domain name • domain extension
Internet Protocol • Def. a set of rules or standard designed so that computers can exchange information with a minimum of errors. • Examples: http, ftp, telnet, gopher, http://www.yahoo.com
Internet Designation • Additional information that provides more information about a web address. • Example: www http://www.yahoo.com
Domain Name • This is the specific name that has been registered by an individual or corporation. • Examples: sutfin.com http://www.yahoo.com
Domain Extension • Describes the type of domain. • Domain types are typically reserved for specific categories of organizations. • Examples include: .com .net .org http://www.yahoo.com
Major Domain Extensions .com - typically used for commercial companies who offer goods on the Internet or .org - typically reserved for non-profit organizations .net - typically reserved for companies that provide network services .edu - reserved for higher education organizations typically four year universities .gov - reserved for government offices
ae United Arab Emirates ai Anguilla ar Argentine Republic arpa Advanced Projects Research Agency at Austria au Australia be Belgium bg Bulgaria bh Finland bm Bermuda bo Bolivia br Brazil ca Canada Additional Domain name extensions ch Switzerland cl Chile cn People's Republic of China co Colombia com Commercial cr Costa Rica cy Cyprus cz Czech Republic de Federal Republic of Germany dk Denmark do Dominican Republic ec Ecuador edu Education ee Estonia eg Arab Republic of Egypt es Spain fi Finland fj Fiji fo Faroe Islands fr France gb Great Britain ge Georgia gl Greenland gov Government gr Greece gu Guam hk Hong Kong (Hisiangkang, Xianggang) hr Croatia / Hrvatska hu Hungary id Indonesia ie Ireland
il Israel in India int International is Iceland it Italian Republic jm Jamaica jo The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan jp Japan kr Korea kw Kuwait ky Cayman Islands kz Kazakhstan lc Saint Lucia li Principality of Liechtenstein lt Lithuania lu Grand Duchy of Luxembourg lv Latvia mil Military mo Macau (Ao-me'n) mt Malta mx United Mexican States my Malaysia net Network ni Nicaragua nl Netherlands no Norway nz New Zealand org Organization pa Panama pe Peru ph Philippines pl Poland pt Portuguese Republic ro Romainia ru Russian Federation Additional Domain name extensions se Sweden sg Singapore si Slovenia sk Slovakia su Union of Soviet Socialist Republics th Thailand tr Turkey tt Trinidad & Tobago tw Taiwan ua Ukraine ug Uganda uk United Kingdom of Great Britain us United States of America uy Uruguay ve Venezuela za South Africa zm Zambia
The Web • Accessible to anyone with an Internet connection • Content of the web • Text • Audio • Video • Hyperlinks • Usually blue and underlined • Clicking on a hyperlink takes you to information that is associated with the current web page. • Multimedia • Began in 1989
The Web • Began in 1989 • Tim Berners-Lee proposed the idea of the web to CERN • 1993 • Web declared open to anyone who would like to use it. • Marc Andreessen introduced Mosaic™ • Mosaic is the first graphical web browser • Later became Netscape.
How URL’s Work • URL • Uniform Resource Locator • The address for a place on the WWW. • Uses names instead of numbers ex. www.yahoo.com and not 192.168.123.120 • User types the address (URL) of a web site into the location area in a browser and presses return. • The browser then submits the information to your internet service provider (ISP) ie Earthlink or AOL
How URL’s Work • The information reaches a DNS (domain name server) • The DNS translates the URL into a corresponding IP address. • IP stands for Internet Protocol • IP address is a four part number for a specific computer on the internet. Ex. 184.108.40.206 • If there is a corresponding IP then the browser is sent the page that has been requested. • If there is no IP that matches then an error is sent to the browser
Getting Connected • Connection types • Dial up • Dedicated • Service Providers • ISPs can be very large corporations or run by a local business • Browser • There are many to choose from. Each has strengths and weaknesses.
Getting Connected: Dial-Up • Dial-up:requires a modem to connect to the network through telephone lines. • This requires the data signal to be changed to and from analogue. • Speeds up to 56kbps
Getting Connected: Dedicated • Dedicated Connection: directly connected to the network. No need for a phone modem nor telephone company. • Speeds up to and beyond 1.5 mbps (1500kbps)
Service Providers Def.- A service provider is a company that gives you access to the internet. The money you pay this company allows you to dial-up a connection to the Internet or provides the equipment that you use to connect to the Internet. • Earthlink • AOL • NetZero
Browsers Your window to the Internet.
Browsers A browser is a program that allows you to view pages on the WWW. It is the program that reads html so that you can view the page. You can think of it as a ‘window’ to the WWW.
Internet Explorer You will find many of the same features here. Instead of bookmarks, you have “Favorites.” There is also a “History” tab that will allow you to see where you have been.
Back Button-Takes you back to the previous page. If you hold your mouse down on the back button you get a list of all the websites you have visited during the current session. • Forward Button- The opposite of the back button. • Home- What ever home page your service provider defaults to. You can change this. • Location- This is where the address or URL is displayed. You can type an address here. • Search Button- One way to search, Netscape uses “Excite” as its search engine • Reload Button-Clicking this causes the page to reload and show any changes. Holding shift and reload tells the browser to skip the cache and get the newest page on the server.
Menu items: • File - print, save • Edit - copy, paste,search option • View - The way things look • Go - back, home, all web sites during current session • Bookmarks - Add a bookmark, see list of bookmarks, edit bookmarks. • Communicator - This will take you to other parts of the program. • Help
Links • When ever you click on something, and the browser takes you somewhere, you have clicked on a link. A link can be a word, a picture, a button, etc. Links can be thought of as connections to associated information. • Clicking on a link takes you either to another web page on the same web site, or to another web site altogether.
Bookmarks • Bookmarks offer a convenient means to retrieve pages whose locations (URLs) you've saved. You store your bookmarks in a list that's saved on your hard disk. Once you add a bookmark to your list, the item stays until you remove it.
Searching How do I find it on the World Wide Web?
Objectives • You will be able to refine a search using specific techniques such as field searches, phrase searches, and boolean terms. • You will be able to identify three different types of search tools and utilize them for different searches.
Effective Searches on the Internet • Identify terms about your topic. • Select a search tool. • Decide on Search Strategies. • Evaluate results. • Return to step 1 if needed.
Directory Search Engine Metasearch Engines Three types of search tools.