Motivation and Emotion
What is Motivation? • A general term describing need & instinct regulated behavior with respect to goals. A presumed internal state causing a “move-toward.” It is a preferential process that affects change in your equilibrium both physiological and psychological. Motivation determines that you will engage in certain responses and ignore others that are possible. • Motivated behavior is any behavior that is energized in an organized fashion to satisfy a need or gain a goal. • A motive is anything that will move you to action. • An incentive is a physical object that can be used to motivate you.
What is an Instinct? • An inherited behavior pattern in response to an environmental stimulus. It is a genetically programmed behavior pattern designed for survival in a particular environment.
When Instinct overcomes a Basic Need
Drive Reduction Theory Homeostatic Drives for Physiological Harmony Specific Drives to Satisfy Needs NEED » DRIVE » BEHAVIOR » SATISFACTION » HOMEOSTASIS Primary & Secondary Drives Optimum Level of Arousal Drives seek the Highest Physiological Arousal Yerkes-Dodson Law Expectancy Theory Refers to Goals & their Expected Consequences Theories of Motivation
Primary Drives - Hunger • The Hypothalamus Monitors Glucose • Hunger Detectors “Hunger center,” “Satiation center,” “Swallow counter,” “Stretch-nerves” • Problems with Eating Cultural differences Obesity Anorexia & Bulimia • Weight Loss Set-point theory & Metabolism
More Primary Drives • Thirst The hypothalamus • Sleep The hypothalamus Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Psychological motivators • Stimulus Change The need for novelty Natural curiosity Need an optimum level of stimulation
The Sexual Drive • Lower animals driven by hormones Pheromones • Human responding Physiological (testosterone & amygdala) & psychological factors involved • Gender differences in arousal Men aroused by images; women aroused by touch Psychological factors important Differences in male/female responding • Sexual orientation Differences in male & female brains
Other Important Motives • Stimulus Motives 1. Exploration & Curiosity Mammalian trait Need for novel experiences 2. Manipulation Need to experience things for yourself 3. Contact Harlow’s experiments Need to have physical contact & to be with others of the same species (affiliation)
Aggression Intentionally inflicting physical or psychological harm on others. • Instinctive or learned? Social Learning Theory of Bandura • Cultural differences Collectivist vs. Individualist cultures Approval by cultures • Gender differences Males higher due to testosterone?
Psychological Motivators • Achievement Mastery of objects, people, & ideas Increases self-esteem High achievers vs. low achievers High achievers are not gamblers Low achievers take big risks Personality factors involved • Power Need to win recognition or to influence & control others Builds self-esteem Respect vs. envy Tiger Woods Henry Kissinger
Intrinsic motivation Motivation based on internal rewards (i.e. the basic pleasure of the activity itself, the intellectual challenge, or the satisfaction of curiosity). Extrinsic motivation Motivation based on external incentives (i.e. pay, praise, attention, or the avoidance of punishment). Areas of Achievement
Psychoanalytic Theory Initially, the source of motivation is libido or sexual energy. Later, thanatos and anxiety were motivators. Analytic Theory Motivation is through moral & “religious” values. Understanding the personality is the key to how one is motivated. Homeostatic Drive Theory Need > Drive > Response > Goal > Reduced Need Humanistic Theory Motivation involves more than one’s physical state. We are capable of evaluating possibilities & incentives & choosing among them. We have some degree of “free will.” We are motivated to actualize our potential (self-actualization) and become a fully-functioning individual. Self-actualization is using your talents, capacities, & potentials to their fullest. Classical Theories of Motivation
First Priority Needs Second Order Needs Fourth Order Needs Highest Order Needs Third Order Needs Self-Actualization Using Talents & Capabilities to the Fullest; Know & Understand Self & Others More Fully Self-Esteem Self-Respect & Respect from Others Love & Belongingness Community, Friends, & Family Safety & Security Caring for & Being Cared for; Structure, Order, & Predictability Physiological Needs Air, Water, Food, Sleep, Protection from the Elements, etc. The Hierarchy of Needs
Emotions • A state of affectively toned arousal. Basic emotions:Fear Anger Sadness Joy Disgust Surprise These are seen in many mammals.
Classifying Emotions • Simplest classification Pleasant or unpleasant • Location in the brain Limbic system Hypothalamus, pituitary, & amygdala • Biochemistry - endorphins & neuropeptides
Theories of Emotional Responding • James-Lange Theory Stimulus > Physical Changes > Emotional Response • Canon-Bard Theory Stimulus > Simultaneous Physical Changes & Emotional Response • Cognitive Theory Stimulus > Physical Changes>Interpretation > Emotional Response
Experiencing Emotions • Subjective Experiences Composed of:
Communicating Emotions • Verbal Communications About 20% of communications Unable to describe an emotional state • Non-verbal Communications Conveys more about emotions “Body language” & gestures Many facial expressions are universal
Emblems (Symbols) Differ in their meaning from culture to culture. The Serpent The Dragon Other Forms of Non-verbal Communication Higher Self Wisdom Animal Nature Sin
Gender Differences in Emotional Expression • Differences in the same situation Men tend to show less emotion; women show more concern Men inhibit their emotions; women express them Betrayal produces anger in men; hurt & sadness in women Men & women interpret non-verbal emotional cues differently.
Sure Cure for Stress
The ABCs of Emotional Change A = Activating Event B = Irrational Beliefs C = Emotional/Behavioral Consequences D = Disputing E = New Emotional Reaction Recognize a Rational Belief and an Irrational Belief. Irrational Beliefs are demands on one’s self, others or the world. A Rational Statement is necessary to install the New Emotional Reaction. 1. I must be loved and approved by almost every significant other person in my life. 2. I should be completely competent and achieving in all ways to be a worthwhile person. 3. Certain people I must deal with are thoroughly bad and should be severely blamed and punished for it. 4. It is awful and upsetting when things are not the way I would very much like them to be. 5. My happiness is always caused by external events; I cannot control my emotional reactions. 6. If something unpleasant might happen, I should keep dwelling on it. 7. It is easier to avoid difficulties and responsibilities than to face them. 8. I should depend on others who are stronger than I am. 9. Because something once strongly affected my life, it will do so indefinitely. 10. There is always a perfect solution to human problems, and it is awful if this solution is not found. Dealing with Emotions 10 Common Irrational Beliefs