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Causes of goal-seeking behavior and the effects of emotions on motivation

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Motivation and Emotion

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what is motivation
What is Motivation?
  • A general term describing need & instinct regulated behavior with respect to goals.

A presumed internal state causing a “move-toward.”

It is a preferential process that affects change in your equilibrium both physiological and psychological.

Motivation determines that you will engage in certain responses and ignore others that are possible.

  • Motivated behavior is any behavior that is energized in an organized fashion to satisfy a need or gain a goal.
  • A motive is anything that will move you to action.
  • An incentive is a physical object that can be used to motivate you.
what is an instinct
What is an Instinct?
  • An inherited behavior pattern in response to an environmental stimulus.

It is a genetically programmed behavior pattern designed for survival in a particular environment.

theories of motivation
Drive Reduction Theory

Homeostatic Drives for Physiological Harmony

Specific Drives to Satisfy Needs



Primary & Secondary Drives

Optimum Level of Arousal

Drives seek the Highest Physiological Arousal

Yerkes-Dodson Law

Expectancy Theory

Refers to Goals & their Expected Consequences

Theories of Motivation
primary drives hunger
Primary Drives - Hunger
  • The Hypothalamus

Monitors Glucose

  • Hunger Detectors

“Hunger center,” “Satiation center,” “Swallow counter,” “Stretch-nerves”

  • Problems with Eating

Cultural differences


Anorexia & Bulimia

  • Weight Loss

Set-point theory & Metabolism

more primary drives
More Primary Drives
  • Thirst

The hypothalamus

  • Sleep

The hypothalamus

Suprachiasmatic Nucleus

Psychological motivators

  • Stimulus Change

The need for novelty

Natural curiosity

Need an optimum level of stimulation

the sexual drive
The Sexual Drive
  • Lower animals driven by hormones


  • Human responding

Physiological (testosterone & amygdala) & psychological factors involved

  • Gender differences in arousal

Men aroused by images; women aroused by touch

Psychological factors important

Differences in male/female responding

  • Sexual orientation

Differences in male & female brains

other important motives
Other Important Motives
  • Stimulus Motives

1. Exploration & Curiosity

Mammalian trait

Need for novel experiences

2. Manipulation

Need to experience things for yourself

3. Contact

Harlow’s experiments

Need to have physical contact & to be with others of the same species (affiliation)


Intentionally inflicting physical

or psychological harm on others.

  • Instinctive or learned?

Social Learning Theory of Bandura

  • Cultural differences

Collectivist vs. Individualist cultures

Approval by cultures

  • Gender differences

Males higher due to testosterone?

psychological motivators
Psychological Motivators
  • Achievement

Mastery of objects, people, & ideas

Increases self-esteem

High achievers vs. low achievers

High achievers are not gamblers

Low achievers take big risks

Personality factors involved

  • Power

Need to win recognition or to influence & control others

Builds self-esteem

Respect vs. envy

Tiger Woods



areas of achievement
Intrinsic motivation

Motivation based on internal rewards (i.e. the basic pleasure of the activity itself, the intellectual challenge, or the satisfaction of curiosity).

Extrinsic motivation

Motivation based on external incentives (i.e. pay, praise, attention, or the avoidance of punishment).

Areas of Achievement
classical theories of motivation
Psychoanalytic Theory

Initially, the source of motivation is libido or sexual energy. Later, thanatos and anxiety were motivators.

Analytic Theory

Motivation is through moral & “religious” values. Understanding the personality is the key to how one is motivated.

Homeostatic Drive Theory

Need > Drive > Response > Goal > Reduced Need

Humanistic Theory

Motivation involves more than one’s physical state.

We are capable of evaluating possibilities & incentives & choosing among them.

We have some degree of “free will.”

We are motivated to actualize our potential (self-actualization) and become a fully-functioning individual.

Self-actualization is using your talents, capacities, & potentials to their fullest.

Classical Theories of Motivation

First Priority Needs

Second Order Needs

Fourth Order Needs

Highest Order Needs

Third Order Needs


Using Talents & Capabilities to the Fullest;

Know & Understand Self & Others More Fully


Self-Respect & Respect from Others

Love & Belongingness

Community, Friends, & Family

Safety & Security

Caring for & Being Cared for; Structure, Order, & Predictability

Physiological Needs

Air, Water, Food, Sleep, Protection from the Elements, etc.

The Hierarchy of Needs

e m o t i o n s
  • A state of affectively toned arousal.

Basic emotions:Fear






These are seen in many mammals.

classifying emotions
Classifying Emotions
  • Simplest classification

Pleasant or unpleasant

  • Location in the brain

Limbic system

Hypothalamus, pituitary, & amygdala

  • Biochemistry

- endorphins & neuropeptides

theories of emotional responding
Theories of Emotional Responding
  • James-Lange Theory

Stimulus > Physical Changes > Emotional Response

  • Canon-Bard Theory

Stimulus > Simultaneous Physical Changes & Emotional Response

  • Cognitive Theory

Stimulus > Physical Changes>Interpretation > Emotional Response

experiencing emotions
Experiencing Emotions
  • Subjective Experiences

Composed of:

communicating emotions
Communicating Emotions
  • Verbal Communications

About 20% of communications

Unable to describe an emotional state

  • Non-verbal Communications

Conveys more about emotions

“Body language” & gestures

Many facial expressions are universal

other forms of non verbal communication
Emblems (Symbols)

Differ in their meaning from culture to culture.

The Serpent

The Dragon

Other Forms of Non-verbal Communication

Higher Self


Animal Nature


gender differences in emotional expression
Gender Differences in Emotional Expression
  • Differences in the same situation

Men tend to show less emotion; women show more concern

Men inhibit their emotions; women express them

Betrayal produces anger in men; hurt & sadness in women

Men & women interpret non-verbal emotional cues differently.


Sure Cure

for Stress

dealing with emotions
The ABCs of Emotional Change

A = Activating Event

B = Irrational Beliefs

C = Emotional/Behavioral Consequences

D = Disputing

E = New Emotional Reaction

Recognize a Rational Belief and an Irrational Belief.

Irrational Beliefs are demands on one’s self, others or the world.

A Rational Statement is necessary to install the New Emotional Reaction.

1. I must be loved and approved by almost every significant other person in my life.

2. I should be completely competent and achieving in all ways to be a worthwhile person.

3. Certain people I must deal with are thoroughly bad and should be severely blamed and punished for it.

4. It is awful and upsetting when things are not the way I would very much like them to be.

5. My happiness is always caused by external events; I cannot control my emotional reactions.

6. If something unpleasant might happen, I should keep dwelling on it.

7. It is easier to avoid difficulties and responsibilities than to face them.

8. I should depend on others who are stronger than I am.

9. Because something once strongly affected my life, it will do so indefinitely.

10. There is always a perfect solution to human problems, and it is awful if this solution is not found.

Dealing with Emotions

10 Common Irrational Beliefs