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  1. Related Sentences The boy is sleeping. Is the boy sleeping? The boy can sleep. Can the boy sleep? Mary picked up the book. Mary picked the book up. Mary hit Bill. Bill was hit by Mary. Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman & Nina Hyams. 2011. An Introduction to Language, 9th edition. Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, p. 90.

  2. Sentence Relatedness The father wept silently. The father silently wept. Mary picked up the book. Mary picked the book up. Mary hired Bill. Bill was hired by Mary. Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman & Nina Hyams. 2007. An Introduction to Language, 8th edition. Boston, MA: Thomson Wadsworth, p. 115. Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman & Nina Hyams. 2003. An Introduction to Language. Boston, MA: Wadsworth, p. 152.

  3. Sentence Relatedness I know that you know. I know you know. The boy is sleeping. Is the boy sleeping? The boy can sleep. Can the boy sleep? The boy slept. Did the boy sleep? Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman & Nina Hyams. 2003. An Introduction to Language. Boston, MA: Wadsworth, p. 152.

  4. Transformational Rules  Different from PS rules  Purpose of T-rules Examples of T-rules needed  D-structure and S-structure trees No formal statement of rules in textbook Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman & Nina Hyams. 2011. An Introduction to Language, 9th edition. Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, p. 115ff.

  5. Transformations 1  Yes/No Questions (EX) The boy is sleeping. Is the body sleeping?  Question Word Movement (EX)  Active/Passive The cat chased the mouse. The mouse was chased by the cat. Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman & Nina Hyams. 2011. An Introduction to Language, 9th edition. Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, pp. 115-124.

  6. Transformations 2  There sentences A man was on the roof. There was a man on the roof.  PP Preposing The astronomer saw the quasar with the telescope. With the telescope, the astronomer saw the quasar. Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman & Nina Hyams. 2011. An Introduction to Language, 9th edition. Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, pp. 115-124.

  7. More Transformations 3 Verb-Adverb Switching (EX) The father wept silently. The father silently wept. Verb-Particle Switching Mary picked up the book Mary picked the book up. Topicalization John asked Mary to see this film with him. This film, John asked Mary to see with him.

  8. Transformational Rules What can transformational rules do? 1. Move elements 2. Add elements 3. Delete elements Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman & Nina Hyams. 2011. An Introduction to Language, 9th edition. Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, p. 117.

  9. Yes-No Question Transformation (before) S NP VP Aux VP Det N V The boy is sleeping Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman & Nina Hyams. 2011. An Introduction to Language, 9th edition. Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, p. 116.

  10. Yes-No Question Transformation (after) S S Aux NP VP Det N V Is the boy sleeping Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman & Nina Hyams. 2011. An Introduction to Language, 9th edition. Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, p. 116.

  11. Yes-No Question Transformation with DO Support (before) S NP VP Det N Aux VP NP The student PAST ate Det N some ice cream

  12. Yes-No Question Transformation with DO Support (after) S Aux S NP VP Det N V NP Did the student eat Det N some ice cream

  13. Wh-Question Transformation (after) S S PROwh Aux NP VP Npr Vt NP _ What can Mary accomplish Nick Cipollone, Steven Hartman Keiser, Shravan Vasishth, editors. Language Files, seventh edition. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1998, p. 206

  14. Verb-Adverb Transformation (before) S NP VP Det N V Adv The father wept silently Victoria Fromkin and Robert Rodman. An Introduction to Language, sixth edition. Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace College Publishers, 1998, p. 138.

  15. Verb-Adverb Transformation (after) S NP VP Det N Adv V The father silently wept Victoria Fromkin and Robert Rodman. An Introduction to Language, sixth edition. Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace College Publishers, 1998, p. 138.

  16. Structure Dependent Rules Subject-Verb Agreement The guy seems kind of cute. The guys seem kind of cute. The guy we met at the party next door seems kind of cute. The guys we met at the party next door seem kind of cute. Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman & Nina Hyams. 2011. An Introduction to Language, 9th edition. Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, p. 118.

  17. Structure Dependent Rules Yes-No Question The boywas dreaming. Wasthe boy dreaming? The boy who is sleepingwas dreaming. Wasthe boy who is sleeping dreaming? Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman & Nina Hyams. 2011. An Introduction to Language, 9th edition. Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, pp. 118-119.

  18. Structure Dependent Rules: Yes-No Question The girl with the incredibly red hair who bought the Porsche yesterday down on Mintzu Road that I saw talking to your sister is eating.

  19. Universal Grammar “Universal Grammar (UG) provides the basic design for all human languages, and individual languages are simply variations on this basic design.” Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman & Nina Hyams. 2011. An Introduction to Language, 9th edition. Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, p. 124.

  20. Universal Grammar Metaphor “Imagine a new housing development. All of the houses have the same floor plan, but the occupants have some choices to make. They can have carpet or hardwood floors, curtains or blinds; they can choose their kitchen cabinets and the countertops, the bathroom tiles, and so on. It is claimed that “This is more or less how the syntax operates. Languages conform to a basic design and then there are choice points or points of variation.” Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman & Nina Hyams. 2011. An Introduction to Language, 9th edition. Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, p. 124.

  21. Languages according to UG Universal  Phrase structure rules  Phrases consist of heads and complements  Sentences are headed by Aux (or T)  Movement rules  Structural dependency Specific Parameters  Word order  Head first / last  Details about tense, aspect, agreement  Details about inflection  Movement or non-movement Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman & Nina Hyams. 2011. An Introduction to Language, 9th edition. Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, pp. 124-127.

  22. Importance of Transformational Rules  They decrease the number of PS Rules we need. We can write just basic rules (for d-structure) and allow T Rules to transform them into surface forms (s-structure).  They show the relationship between related sentences that native speakers intuitively feel.  They prevent us from writing PS Rules that might allow ungrammatical sentences.

  23. Analyzing Sentences Using Phrase Structure Rules 1. The boy bit the dog. 2. A large elephant walked into the school. 3. Cathy said that Sonia likes music. 4. Avon believes we should help other people. 5. That we should help other people is praised by everyone.

  24. Analyzing Sentences Using Phrase Structure Rules 6. They don’t want pizza. 7. Aaron is tall. 8. Carol quickly ran to the car. 9. Can you help me? 10. *Vicky ate on the table the cake.