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Earth’s Crust. in Motion. Inside Earth Chapter 2.1 Pages 54-61. Stress(ed)?. Stress is the measure of the amount of force applied to a given area . Effect on Rocks. Stress is the force that acts on a rock to change its shape or volume Adds energy to the rock. Deformation.

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earth s crust

Earth’s Crust

in Motion

Inside Earth Chapter 2.1

Pages 54-61

slide2

Stress(ed)?

  • Stressis the measure of the amount of force applied to a given area.
slide3

Effect on Rocks

  • Stress is the force that acts on a rock to change its shape or volume
  • Adds energy to the rock.
slide4

Deformation

  • Deformation:Any change in the shape or volume of Earth’s crust (caused by stress)
  • Crust deforms from the force of plates colliding
    • Transform boundaries.
slide6

Relieving Stress

  • Over time, stress builds up in the plates
  • Eventually, the stress is released…
slide7

Earthquake!

Earthquake!

slide8

Earthquakes

  • The shaking and trembling that results from the movement of rock beneath Earth’s surface.
  • Releases MASSIVE amounts of energy
  • Generates seismic waves
slide9

Compression

  • Definition: Squeezing
  • Effect on Rock:
      • Makes rock layers thicker and shorter
  • Associated Fault Type: 
    • Reverse Fault
  • Associated Plate Boundary:
    • Convergent Boundary
slide10

Tension

  • Definition: Pulling apart
  • Effect on Rock:
    • Stretches making rocks longer and thinner
  • Associated Fault Type: 
    • Normal Fault
  • Associated Plate Boundary:
    • Divergent Boundary
slide11

Shear

  • Definition: Moving in opposite directions
    • Think of shears or scissors
  • Effect on Rock:
    • Stress distorts the shapes of rocks.
  • Associated Fault Type: 
    • Strike-Slip
  • Associated Plate Boundary:
    • Transform
slide12

Faults

  • Afault is a break in the lithosphere
  • Usually occur along plate boundaries, where the motions of plates compress, pull or shear the crust so much that the crust breaks.
  • 3 Types of Faults
    • Strike Slip Fault
    • Normal Fault
    • Reverse Fault
slide13

Hanging Wall

Hanging (head) Wall

Foot Wall

  • Above the fault plane.
slide14

Foot Wall

Hanging (head) Wall

Foot Wall

  • Below the fault plane
slide15

Which Wall’s Which?

  • Hanging Wall
    • Lantern
  • Foot Wall
    • Path
slide16

Friction along Faults

  • How rocks move determines how much friction there is between opposite sides of the fault
  • Friction:a force that opposes the motion of one surface as it moves across another

What about the surfaces causes friction?

    • It exist because surfaces are not perfectly smooth.
slide17

Normal Fault

  • Force: Tension (diverging)
  • Hanging wall: Moves down (with gravity)
slide18

Reverse Fault

  • Force: Compression (converging)
  • Hanging wall: Moves up (against gravity)
slide19

Strike-Slip Fault

  • Force: Shear (transform)
  • Rocks on both sides of the fault slide past each other
slide21

Landforms

  • Topography: determined by its elevation, relief and landform
  • All landforms have elevation and relief
  • A landform region is an area where the topography is similar.
slide22

Elevation

  • The height above sea-level on Earth’s surface.
slide23

Relief

  • The difference between the highest point of elevation and the lowest parts of an area
    • have high relief
    • low relief.
  • Mountains
  • Plains
slide24

Plateaus

  • Have high elevation and relief
    • Perfectly smooth on top
  • May be really thick (1,500m), streams or rivers can cut through.
slide25

Plains

  • Flat or gently rolling land with low relief and varying elevation.
  • Depends on location…
    • Coastal Plains have low elevation at or near sea level along the coast.
    • Interior Plains are away from the coast, causing varied elevation.
slide26

Mountains

  • A landform with high elevation and relief
  • Mountain Ranges are groups of mountains that are closely related in shape, structure and age.
slide29

Mountains formed From Faulting

  • Normal Faults uplift blocks of rock and the hanging wall drops.
slide30

Mountains formed From Folding

  • When continental plates collide, stress can cause rock layers to fold.
  • Creates bends in the rock layers
    • Himalayas Mts.
    • Appalachian Mountains
slide31

Anticline

  • A term used to describe folds in rocks
  • An arching fold in the rock layers or “apex”
slide32

of

the

World

Archways

slide33

Syncline

  • A downward pointing fold or “slump”
slide36

What to Work On

  • Read Section 2.1 (pages 54-61)
  • Answer section review questions (page 61, #1-4)