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Swimming Final Review – 2008/2009. FUN, FITNESS, SAFETY, STROKES. Safety Basics. Safety always comes first. Do not panic in the water. Take deep breaths and try to relax; you are more buoyant when you are relaxed.

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Swimming final review 2008 2009

Swimming Final Review – 2008/2009


Safety basics
Safety Basics

  • Safety always comes first. Do not panic in the water. Take deep breaths and try to relax; you are more buoyant when you are relaxed.

  • In an emergency situation use common sense. 1st Assess the situation; 2nd Call for help; 3rd (Reach or throw; don’t go.)

  • Always wear a Personal Floatation Device (PFD) when participating in open water sports – boating, kayaking, water skiing, canoeing, white water rafting, etc.

  • “Think before you do.” Diving is a high risk activity. Diving accidents are a leading cause of spinal cord injuries. Please note: ***Feet first entries into the water should be a rule all swimmers follow.

Basic information
Basic Information

  • Hands are slightly cupped.

  • Breathe out through your nose and/or mouth.

  • Breathe in through your mouth.

  • The more relaxed you stay in the water; the more efficient your stroke will be.

  • Swimming Heart Rate is determined by how hard you are working. Take your Heart Rate for 6 seconds and multiply the number by 10 to get beats per minute. During warm-up, 120 bpm (beats per minute) is the goal heart rate. In order to reach your target heart rate (training zone) it is recommended people exercise between 140 bpm and 160 bpm.

  • Swimming is believed to be known as the most “healthful” cardiovascular and muscular endurance work-outs


  • Freestyle

  • Back Crawl

  • Elementary Backstroke

  • Breaststroke

  • Sidestroke

Freestyle crawl stroke the american front crawl
Freestyle/Crawl Stroke/The American Front Crawl

  • The body is in the prone (face down) position in the water.

  • Arms alternate; arm recovery is above the water.

  • For endurance purposes, a continuous rhythmic breathing pattern (breath 2’s or 3’s).

  • Flutter kick is utilized.

  • Water is at forehead level.

Back crawl backstroke
Back Crawl/Backstroke

  • The body moves through the water in a supine (face up) position in the water.

  • The body is aligned in a supine position.

  • Arms alternate; pinky in first, thumb out first. Arm recovery is out of the water.

  • A flutter kick on the back is used and the knees are under the water at all times.

  • The head and neck are relaxed in a neutral position with the ears underwater.

Elementary backstroke
Elementary Backstroke

  • The body is aligned in a supine position.

  • The body moves through the water in a supine (face up) position in the water.

  • Arm motion is: chicken, airplane, soldier (glide).

  • Legs use the whip kick.

  • Head and neck are back and relaxed.

  • This is an underwater recovery stroke with a relaxed glide.

  • Arms and legs move simultaneously.


  • Body is in prone position.

  • Body action is: pull, breathe, kick, and glide.

  • Arm action is similar to an upside-down heart and then cut in half.

  • A whip kick is utilized.

  • The arms and legs move opposite of each other.

  • This is an underwater recovery stroke with a glide.


  • The body is on its side.

  • Arm action is similar to picking an apple and putting it in the basket at the bellybutton.

  • The leg movement is a scissors kick with the top leg going forward and the bottom leg going backward followed by a scissors kick together.

  • The head stays above the water looking to the side of the pool.

  • This is an underwater recovery stroke with a relaxed glide.

Additional important swimming skills
Additional Important Swimming Skills

  • Treading

  • Survival Floating

  • Surface Dives

  • Jumping and Diving

  • Bobbing


  • Treading water is used when someone can not touch the bottom.

  • Arms and legs work together to keep the head above the water.

  • Arms move in a sculling motion like a figure eight.

  • Legs may use the following: a whip kick, scissors kick (bicycle), or the egg beater kick.

Survival floating dead man s float
Survival Floating/Dead Man’s Float

  • The survival float is used in deep water situations to save energy.

  • The arms and legs hang in the water.

  • The head is down in the water, exhale under water, and inhale above water.

Surface dive
Surface Dive

  • When a swimmer is already in the water, the surface dive is used to retrieve objects under the water.

  • A few strokes are taken with the head above water.

  • Pike or tuck position pushing the head and arms down first and the feet last.

  • Feet first surface dives are also used especially if you don’t know the depth of the water.

Jumping and diving
Jumping and Diving

  • Always check depth before entering any body of water.

  • While jumping and diving from the side of the pool, it is important for the person to look to make sure no objects are in their way.

  • Diving in the shallow end is not advised – spinal cord injuries are common in shallow end diving. If one chooses to dive, it is crucial to be completely aware of water depth when diving.

  • When jumping in the shallow end, make sure the knees are slightly bent to avoid injury.


  • Bobbing is used to get accustomed to the depth of the water and may be used to get the person from the deep end to the shallow end.

  • Bobbing helps swimmers learn breathing patterns – exhale under the water and inhale above the water. It is one of the first skills taught to beginning swimmers.


  • Maximum Heart Rate (MHR) = 220 – age

  • Resting Heart Rate (RHR) = your heart rate at rest

  • Target Heart Rate (THR) = The rate at which your heart should be beating while exercising. One should reach THR for 20 minutes or more at least 3 days a week.

Fitt principle
FITT Principle

  • Frequency – How often you work out.

  • Intensity – How hard you work out (measure by heart rate).

  • Time – How long you work out (duration).

  • Type – What kind of activity you choose to participate in.

Components of fitness
Components of Fitness

  • Cardiovascular Endurance – The ability of the respiratory system (heart and lungs) to supply oxygen and remove waste products during activity.

  • Muscular Endurance - The ability to exert a force repeatedly over time.

  • Muscular Strength - The ability to exert a maximum force “one” time.

  • Flexibility - The range of motion of a specific joint.

  • Body Composition - Lean body mass compared to body fat.