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Human Anatomy (BIOL 1010). E. Goffe eggoffe@ccri.edu Office 1132F (Providence). What is Anatomy?. Anatomy (= morphology): study of body’s structure Physiology: study of body’s function Structure reflects Function!!! Branches of Anatomy Gross: Large structures Surface: Landmarks

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human anatomy biol 1010

Human Anatomy(BIOL 1010)

E. Goffe

eggoffe@ccri.edu

Office 1132F (Providence)

what is anatomy
What is Anatomy?
  • Anatomy (= morphology): study of body’s structure
  • Physiology: study of body’s function
  • Structure reflects Function!!!
  • Branches of Anatomy
    • Gross: Large structures
    • Surface: Landmarks
    • Histology: Cells and Tissues
    • Developmental: Structures change through life
    • Embryology: Structures form and develop before birth
hierarchy of the body
Hierarchy of the Body
  • Moleculesmade of chemicals (4 macromolecules in body)
    • carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
  • Cellsmade of molecules
    • cells and organelles
  • Tissuemade of cells
    • epithelial, connective, muscular, nervous
  • Organsmade of tissues
    • made of >1 type of tissue
  • Systemsmade of organs
    • 11 systems in human body
  • Organismsmade of systems
anatomical directions
Anatomical Directions
  • Anatomical position
  • Regions
    • Axial vs. Appendicular
  • Anatomical Directions-It’s all Relative!
    • Anterior (ventral) vs. Posterior (dorsal)
    • Medial vs. Lateral
    • Superior (cranial) vs. Inferior (caudal)
    • Superficial vs. Deep
    • Proximal vs. Distal
  • Anatomical Planes
    • Frontal = Coronal
    • Transverse = Horizontal = Cross Section
    • Sagittal
embryology growth and development of the body before birth
Embryology: growth and development of the body before birth
  • 38 weeks from conception to birth
  • Prenatal period
    • Embryonic: weeks 1-8
    • Fetal: weeks 9-38
  • Basic adult body plan shows by 2nd month
    • Skin = epidermis, dermis
    • Outer body wall=muscle, vertebral column and spinal cord
    • Body cavity and digestive tubes
    • Kidney and gonads
    • Limbs=skin, muscle, bone
weeks 5 8 and fetal period
Weeks 5-8 and Fetal Period
  • Second month, tadpole  person
    • Tail disappears
    • Head enlarges
    • Extremities form (day 28, limb buds appear)
    • Eyes, nose, ears form
    • Organs in place
  • Fetal Period
    • Rapid growth and maturation
    • Organs grow and increase in complexity & competence
4 types of tissue

4 Types of Tissue

  • Epithelium
  • Connective
  • Muscle
  • Nervous
slide8
Tissues: groups of cells closely associated that have a similar structure and perform a related function
  • Four types of tissue
    • Epithelial = covering/lining
    • Connective = support
    • Muscle = movement
    • Nervous = control
  • Most organs contain all 4 types
  • Tissue has non-living extracellular material between its cells
epithelial tissue sheets of cells cover a surface or line a cavity tissue type 1
EPITHELIAL TISSUE: sheets of cells cover a surface or line a cavity(tissue type #1)
  • Functions
    • Protection
    • Secretion
    • Absorption
    • Ion Transport
    • Slippery Surface
characteristics of epithelium
Characteristics of Epithelium
  • Cellularity
  • Specialized Contacts
  • Polarity
    • Apical vs. Basal
  • Supported by Connective Tissue
  • Avascular
  • Innervated
  • Regenerative
classification of epithelium based on number of layers and cell shape
Classification of Epithelium-based on number of layers and cell shape
  • Layers
    • Simple
    • Stratified
    • Psuedostratified
  • Stratified layers characterized by shape of apical layer
  • Shapes
    • Squamous
    • Cuboidal
    • Columnar
    • Transitional
features of apical surface of epithelium
Features of Apical Surface of Epithelium
  • Microvilli:(ex) in small intestine
    • Finger-like extensions of the plasma membrane of apical epithelial cell
    • Increase surface area for absorption
  • Cilia: (ex) respiratory tubes
    • Whip-like, motile extension of plasma membrane
    • Moves mucus, etc. over epithelial surface 1-way
  • Flagella:(ex) spermatoza
    • Extra long cilia
    • Moves cell
features of lateral surface of epithelium
Features of Lateral Surface of Epithelium
  • Cells are connected to neighboring cells via:
    • Proteins-link cells together, interdigitate
    • Contour of cells-wavy contour fits together
    • Cell Junctions
      • Desmosomes-adhesive spots on lateral sides linked by

proteins/filaments, holds tissues together

      • Tight Junctions-at apical area, plasma membrane of

adjacent cells fuse, nothing passes

      • Gap junction- spot-like junction occurring anywhere

made of hollow cylinders of protein, lets small molecules pass

features of the basal surface of epithelium
Features of the Basal Surface of Epithelium
  • Basement membrane = Sheet between the epithelial and connective tissue layers
    • Attaches epithelium to connective tissue below
    • Basal lamina: thin, non-cellular, supportive sheet Made of proteins
      • Superficial layer
      • Acts as a selective filter
      • Assists epithelial cell regeneration by moving new cells
    • Reticular fiber layer
      • Deeper layer
      • Support
glands epithelial cells that make and secrete a water based substance w proteins
Glands: epithelial cells that make and secrete a water-based substance w/proteins
  • Exocrine Glands
    • Secrete substance onto body surface or into body cavity
    • Have ducts (simple vs. compound)
    • Unicellular (goblet cells) or Multicellular (tubular, alveolar, tubuloalveolar)
    • (ex) salivary, mammary, pancreas, liver
glands epithelial cells that make and secrete a water based substance w proteins16
Glands: epithelial cells that make and secrete a water-based substance w/proteins
  • Endocrine Glands
    • Secrete product into blood stream
    • Either stored in secretory cells or in follicle surrounded by secretory cells
    • Hormones travel to target organ to increase response (excitatory)
    • No ducts
    • (ex) pancreas, adrenal, pituitary, thyroid
4 types of connective tissue

4 Types of Connective Tissue

Connective Tissue Proper

Cartilage

Bone Tissue

Blood

connective tissue ct most abundant and diverse tissue tissue type 2
Connective Tissue (CT): most abundant and diverse tissue(tissue type #2)
  • Four Classes
  • Functions include connecting, storing & carrying nutrients, protection, fight infection
  • CT contains large amounts of non-living extracellular matrix
  • Some types vascularized
  • All CT originates from mesenchyme
1 connective tissue proper
1) Connective Tissue Proper
  • Two kinds: Loose CT & Dense CT
  • Prototype: Loose Areolar Tissue
    • Underneath epithelial tissue
    • Functions
      • Support and bind to other tissue
      • Hold body fluids
      • Defends against infection
      • Stores nutrients as fat
    • Each function performed by different kind of fiber in tissue
fibers in connective tissue
Fibers in Connective Tissue
  • Fibers For Support
    • Reticular: form networks for structure & support (ex) cover capillaries
    • Collagen: strongest, most numerous, provide tensile strength

(ex) dominant fiber in ligaments

    • Elastic: long + thin, stretch and retain shape

(ex) dominant fiber in elastic cartilage

in connective tissue proper
In Connective Tissue Proper
  • Fibroblasts: cells that produce all fibers in CT, produce + secrete protein subunits to make them, produce ground matrix
  • Interstitial (Tissue) Fluid: derived from blood in CT proper; medium for nutrients, waste + oxygen to travel to cells; found in ground matrix
  • Ground Matrix (substance): part of extra-cellular material that holds and absorbs interstitial fluid, jelly-like with sugar & protein molecules
defense from infection
Defense from Infection
  • Areolar tissue below epithelium is body’s first defense
  • Cells travel to CT in blood
    • Macrophages-eat foreign particles
    • Plasma cells-secrete antibodies, mark molecules for destruction
    • Mast cells-contain chemical mediators for inflammation response
    • White Blood Cells = neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils-fight infection
  • Ground substance + cell fibers-slow invading microorganisms
specialized loose ct proper
Specialized Loose CT Proper
  • Adipose tissue-loaded with adipocytes, highly vascularized, high metabolic activity
    • Insulates, produces energy, supports
      • (eg) in hypodermis under skin
  • Reticular CT-contains only reticular fibers
    • Forms caverns to hold free cells
      • (eg) bone marrow, holds blood cells
    • Forms internal “skeleton” of some organs
      • (eg) lymph nodes, spleen
dense fibrous connective tissue
Dense/Fibrous Connective Tissue
  • Contains more collagen
  • Can resist extremely strong pulling forces
  • Regular vs. Irregular
    • Regular-fibers run same direction, parallel to pull
      • (eg) fascia, tendons, ligaments
    • Irregular-fibers thicker, run in different directions
      • (eg) dermis, fibrous capsules at ends of bones
2 cartilage
2) Cartilage
  • Chondroblastsproduce cartilage
  • Chondrocytes mature cartilage cells
  • More abundant in embryo than adult
  • Firm, Flexible
  • Resists compression
    • (eg) trachea, meniscus
  • 80% water
  • Avascular (chondrocytes can function w/low oxygen)
  • NOT Innervated
  • Perichondrium-dense, irregular connective tissue around cartilage
    • growth/repair of cartilage
    • resists expansion during compression of cartilage
cartilage in the body
Cartilage in the Body
  • Three types:
    • Hyaline
      • most abundant
      • fibrils in matrix
      • support via flexibility/resilience
      • (eg) at limb joints, ribs, nose
    • Elastic
      • many elastic fibers in matrix too
      • great flexibility
      • (eg) external ear, epiglottis
    • Fibrocartilage
      • resists both compression and tension
      • (eg) meniscus, annulus fibrosus
3 bone tissue a bone is an organ
3) Bone Tissue:(a bone is an organ)
  • Functions:
    • support (eg) pelvic bowl, legs
    • protect (eg) skull, vertebrae
    • mineral storage (eg) calcium, phosphate (inorganic component)
    • movement (eg) walk, grasp objects
    • blood-cell formation (eg) red bone marrow
components of bone
Components of Bone
  • Matrix
    • Mineralized with hydroxyappetite
  • Cells
    • Osteoblasts: secrete organic part of bone matrix
    • Osteocytes: mature bone cells, maintain bone matrix
  • Connective Tissue Proper
    • Periosteum: external layer of CT surrounds bone
    • Endosteum: internal layer of CT lines cavities and covers trabeculae
    • Both contain osteoblasts and osteoclasts
  • Bone is well-vascularized, highly innervated
bone anatomy compact bone
Bone Anatomy: Compact bone
  • Compact bone: dense, external layer
  • Haversian system = osteon
    • long, cylindrical structures run parallel to long axis of bone
    • within each osteon, groups of concentric tubes (lamella)
    • Lamella: layer of bone matrix all fibers run in same direction
      • fibers on each lamella runs in opposite directions to one near it
    • Haversian canal-runs through center of osteon, contain blood vessels and nerves
    • Interstitial Lamella- pieces of bone matrix between osteon
    • Osteocytes between osteons
bone anatomy spongy bone
Bone Anatomy: Spongy bone
  • Spongy bone (cancellous bone): internal layer
    • Trabeculae: small, needle-like pieces of bone form honeycomb
      • each made of several layers of lamellae + osteocytes
      • no canal for vessels
      • space filled with bone marrow
      • not as dense, no direct stress at bone’s center
shapes of bones
Shapes of Bones
  • Flat = skull, sternum, clavicle
  • Irregular = pelvis, vertebrae
  • Short = carpals, patella
  • Long = femur, phalanges, metacarpals, humerus
anatomy of a long bone
Anatomy of a Long Bone
  • Diaphysis
    • Medullary Cavity
    • Nutrient Art & Vein
  • 2 Epiphyses
    • Epiphyseal Plates
    • Epiphyseal Art & Vein
  • Periosteum
    • Outer: Dense irregular CT
    • Inner: Osteoblasts, osteoclasts
    • Does not cover epiphyses
    • Attaches to bone matrix via collagen fibers
  • Endosteum
    • Osteoblasts, osteoclasts
    • Covers trabeculae, lines medullary cavity
2 types of bone formation
2 Types of Bone Formation
  • Endochondral Ossification: All other bones
    • Begins with a cartilaginous model
    • Perichondrium becomes replaced by periosteum
    • Cartilage calcifies
    • Medullary cavity is formed by action of osteoclasts
    • Epiphyses grow and eventually calcify
      • Epiphyseal plates remain cartilage for up to 20 years
  • Intramembranous Ossification
    • Membrane bones: most skull bones and clavicle
    • Osteoblasts in membrane secrete osteoid that mineralizes
    • Trabeculae form between blood vessels, thickens to become compact bone at periphery
    • Osteocytes maintain new bone tissue
    • Periosteum forms over it
bone growth remodeling
Bone Growth & Remodeling
  • GROWTH
    • Appositional Growth = widening of bone
      • Bone tissue added on surface by osteoblasts of periosteum
      • Medullary cavity maintained by osteoclasts
    • Lengthening of Bone
      • Epiphyseal plates enlarge by chondroblasts
      • Matrix calcifies (chondrocytes die and disintegrate)
      • Bone tissue replaces cartilage on diaphysis side
  • REMODELING
    • Due to mechanical stresses on bones, their tissue needs to be replaced
      • Osteoclasts-take up bone ( = breakdown) release Ca2++ , PO4 to body fluids from bone
      • Osteoblasts-form new bone by secreting osteoid
    • Ideally osteoclasts and osteoblasts work at the same rate!
4 blood atypical connective tissue
4) Blood: Atypical Connective Tissue
  • Function:
    • Transports waste, gases, nutrients, hormones through cardiovascular system
    • Helps regulate body temperature
    • Protects body by fighting infection
  • Derived from mesenchyme
  • Hematopoiesis: production of blood cells
    • Occurs in red bone marrow
    • In adults, axial skeleton, girdles, proximal epiphyses of humerus and femur
blood cells
Blood Cells
  • Erythrocytes: (RBC) small, oxygen-transporting
    • most abundant in blood
    • no organelles, filled w/hemoglobin
    • pick up O2 at lungs, transport to rest of body
  • Platelets = Thrombocytes: fragments of cytoplasm
    • plug small tears in vessel walls, initiates clotting
  • Leukocytes: (WBC) complete cells , 5 types
    • fight against infectious microorganisms
    • stored in bone marrow for emergencies
muscle tissue tissue type 3
Muscle Tissue (tissue type #3)
  • Muscle cells/fibers
    • Elongated
    • Contain many myofilaments: Actin & Myosin
  • FUNCTION
    • Movement
    • Maintenance of posture
    • Joint Stabilization
    • Heat Generation
  • Three types: Skeletal, Cardiac, Smooth
skeletal muscle tissue each skeletal muscle is an organ
Skeletal Muscle Tissue(each skeletal muscle is an organ)
  • Cells
    • Long and cylindrical, in bundles
    • Multinucleate
    • Obvious Striations
  • Skeletal Muscles-Voluntary
  • Connective Tissue Components:
    • Endomysium-surrounds fibers
    • Perimysium-surrounds bundles
    • Epimysium-surrounds the muscle
  • Attached to bones, fascia, skin
  • Origin & Insertion
cardiac muscle
Cardiac Muscle
  • Cells
    • Branching, chains of cells
    • Single or Binucleated
    • Striations
    • Connected by Intercalated discs
  • Cardiac Muscle-Involuntary
  • Myocardium-heart muscle
    • Pumps blood through vessels
  • Connective Tissue Component
    • Endomysium: surrounding cells
smooth muscle tissue
Smooth Muscle Tissue
  • Cells
    • Single cells, uninucleate
    • No striations
  • Smooth Muscle-Involuntary
    • 2 layers-opposite orientation (peristalsis)
  • Lines hollow organs, blood vessels
  • Connective Tissue Component
    • Endomysium: surrounds cells
nervous tissue
Nervous Tissue
  • Neurons: specialized nerve cells conduct impulses
    • Cell body, dendrite, axon
  • Interneuron: between motor & sensory neuron in CNS
  • Characterized by:
    • No mitosis (cell replication)
    • Longevity
    • High metabolic rate
nervous tissue control
Nervous Tissue: control
  • Support cells (= Glial): nourishment, insulation, protection
    • Satellite cells-surround cell bodies within ganglia
    • Schwann cells-surround axons
    • Microglia-phagocytes
    • Oligodendrocytes-produce myelin sheaths around axons
    • Ependymal cells-line brain/spinal cord, ciliated,help circulate CSF
  • Brain, spinal cord, nerves
neuronal anatomy
Neuronal Anatomy
  • Synapse: cell junction where neurons communicate
  • One direction: presynaptic neuron, postsynaptic neuron
  • Presynaptic neuron
    • Synaptic vesicles fuses w/presynaptic membrane
    • Neurotransmitters released,
    • diffuse across

synaptic cleft, bind to

postsynaptic membrane

    • ٠Creates impulse

(action potential) in

that neuron

٠Cycle repeats

integumentary system
Integumentary System
  • Skin
    • Epidermis = epithelium
    • Dermis = connective tissue
  • Hypodermis = connective tissue
  • Skin Appendages = outgrowths of epidermis
    • Hair follicles
    • Sweat and Sebaceous glands
    • Nails
integumentary system49
Integumentary System
  • Functions
    • Protection
      • Mechanical, thermal, chemical, UV
    • Cushions & insulates deeper organs
    • Prevention of water loss
    • Thermoregulation
    • Excretion
      • Salts, urea, water
    • Sensory reception
layers of the epidermis
Layers of the Epidermis
  • Stratum corneum
    • Dead keratinocytes
  • Stratum lucidum
    • Dead keratinocytes
  • Stratum granulosum
    • Keratinocytes
    • Tonofilaments
    • Lamellated & keratohyaline granules
  • Stratum spinosum
    • Keratinocytes
    • Tonofilaments
    • Langerhans cells
  • Stratum basale
    • Keratinocytes
    • Melanocytes
    • Merkel receptors
dermis

Highly innervated

  • Highly vascularized
  • Collagen & Elastic fibers
  • Many cell types
    • Fibroblasts
    • Macrophages
    • Mast cells
    • White blood cells
  • Papillary layer (20%)
    • Areolar CT
    • Hair follicles
  • Reticular layer (80%)
    • Dense Irregular CT
    • Glands
      • Sebaceous glands
      • Sweat glands
    • Smooth muscle fibers
Dermis
hypodermis
Hypodermis
  • Also called superficial fascia
  • Areolar & Adipose Connective Tissue
  • Functions
    • Store fat
    • Anchor skin to muscle, etc.
    • Insulation