Energy Efficient Street Lights Technology Debbie Bell Municipal Regional Sales Manager Hubbell Lighting, Inc. Yaser Abdelsamed Director of Innovation and Technology Acuity Brands Lighting
Municipal Influencers Technology Lighting Need
Industry Organizations and Standards • Illuminating Engineering Society - www.ies.org • American National Standards Institute – www.ansi.org • RP-8-00 – Roadway Lighting • RP-33-99 - Lighting for Exterior Environments • RP-6-01 - Sports and Recreational Area Lighting • DG-4-03 – Roadway Lighting Maintenance • LM-79,LM-80 – LED Photometry and Measurement • C136.3-1995 - Roadway Lighting Equipment
RP-8 Standard illuminance luminance
RP-20 Standard illuminance
F x N x Lm x LF x CU Area E = Calculating Lighting • E = Required Footcandles • F = Total Number of Fixtures • N = Lamps per Fixture • Lm = Lumens per Lamp • LF = Loss Factors • CU = Coefficient of Utilization • Area = Area of Space Critical factors
Recoverable • Light that can be recovered through lamp changes or properly planned maintenance. • LLD: Lamp Lumen Depreciation • LDD: Luminaire Dirt Depreciation • LBO: Luminaire Burn-Out factor • Unrecoverable • Factors that are inherent to the design of the fixture or the characteristics of the space. • LAT: Luminaire Ambient Temperature • LSD: Luminaire Surface Depreciation • IESNA Lighting Handbook, 9th Edition, pg 9-17 • RP-8-00 - Annex A
Calculation tools Photometry Geometry Lighting Calculation
Uniformity major benefit • IESNA recommended practice encourages better uniformity (lower Max-to-Min) since it is easier for the eye to adapt • Limited research data available; for example … How much better is 2:1 versus 8:1 in a parking lot? • Generally accepted that 2X luminance variation is perception threshold. • Optimized LED design is ~2:1 luminance uniformity for main parking driven by illuminance uniformity
High Pressure Sodium • System Description • Standard lamp and socket • Electronic ballast • Benefits • Established lamp technology • Long life • Step dimming • Prevents “end of lamp life” syndrome that can damage the fixture • Remote monitoring and troubleshooting • Asset management • Retrofit into existing opticals • Issues • Poor color rendering • N/A in 480V • Lamp warranties • Controls backhaul expense
Metal Halide • System Description • Ceramic arc tube lamp • Electronic ballast • Special socket • Benefits • Extended lamp life • White light and higher CRI • Variable or step dimming • Higher source efficacy and lumen maintenance • Faster hot restrike • Retrofit into existing opticals • Meets EISA legislation • Issues • New technology • Manufacturers dependent • Limited wattage
Induction Technology • System Description • Matched lamp, socket and ballast • Benefits • Instant on • White light and similar CRI • Extended lamp life/ lower maintenance costs • Recent advancements provide variable or step dimming • Good source efficacy and lumen maintenance • Issues • Diminished optical control • Limited wattage • Thermal management • High initial costs
LED Lighting Reduced maintenance What changed? Quality Of Light Design Advanced Optics EnvironmentallyFriendly Reduced Glare & Spill Light Dimmable / Instant On MARKET DRIVERS Improved Efficacy System Wattage Flexible Design/Controllable Remote Controls 2.5X Improved Life Lumen Output ReducedEnergy Energy Legislation InstalledCost
LED Efficiency Evolution HID Fluorescent CFL LED Cool White - 5800K LED Warm White - 3000K Halogen Incandescent Jacques Pankove, RCA Labratories – Invents first blue GaN LED Rubin Braunstein, Radio Corp of America – reports on infrafred emission from GaAs and other semiconducctors Henry Round – Marconi Labs Semi-conductor junction produces light Nick Holonyak, Jr., General Electric creates first practical visisble spectrum LED. Is dubbed “father of the light emitting diode” Nichia –, introduces high brightness white LED 150 LPW at 20mA forward current Cree Lighting, Raliehg, NC – demonstrates prototype 131 LPW at 20mA Shugi Nakamura, Nchia – demonstrates first high brightness blue LED (InGaN) Russian Oleg Losev creates first LED semiconductor Bob Baird and Gary Pittman, Texas Instruments - patent first infrared (GaAs) LED M. George Craford (Holonyak protégé) - creates first yellow LED, 10X brighter red LED and red-orange LEDs Cree Lighting - demonstrates rated at 65 LPW at 20mA Phillips introduces high power LED capable of continuous operation at W 1991 1907 1920 1955 1961 1962 1971 1972 1993 2003 2006 2008
The Technology… High Brightness (HB) LED Light Source Benefits • Efficiency • Optical advantage • Environmentally friendly • Life and TCO • Lumen Maintenance • Durable, Compact • Color, Color Changing • Instant on • Variable Dimming • Operates well in cold temperatures • Improved photometrics
LED Features & Benefits • LED Features: • Multiple Light Source Emitter • Directional Light Source vs. 360 deg. Lamp • Individually Controllable • LED Benefit: • Color Consistency – Unit To Unit • Greater Optical Control – Light where desired • Improved Fixture Efficiency – Fewer Fixtures / Lower Watts • Improved Control Of Spill Light – Less Light Pollution / Light Trespass Coefficient of Utilization Sanity check: 250W MH Lamp = 22000 PS lumens initial (13700 mean) = 22000/250 = 88 LPW X luminaire efficiency of 77% = (22000X.77)/250 = 16940 or 68 overall LPW X coefficient of utilization of 35% = (22000X.35)/250 = 7700 or 30 delivered LPW
Thermal balance FIXTURE AMBIENT AIR radiation (~10%) Light (~25%) convection (~90%) Conduction (~75%)
Luminous flux Junction temperature Lumen output decreases with temperature.
Instant On Lumens / Watt Thermally Stabilized
Mean lumens 20C L70 Life decreases significantly with increasing temperature.
LED “Droop” IDEAL actual As current increases, light output doesn’t increase at the same rate.
HID Fluorescent Lumens per $ Incandescent CFL LED
Energy Maintenance LED Offering Labor Energy Material Maintenance Savings Labor Material Total Cost of Ownership Traditional LED Solution
What’s next… Lighting Controls Circuit Control Radio Frequency • Benefits • Asset management • Resource allocation • Customer service • Warranty assurance • Remote troubsleshooting • Issues • New technology • Retrofit application • Data retrieval and managment • High initial costs Power Line Carrier Wireless Telemetry
What’s next… Plasma Lighting • Benefits • Energy Efficient • Minimized environmental material impact • Full color spectrum • Dimmable • Higher lumen packages • Smaller point source • “LED on steroids” • Issues • Technology in development • Retrofit or new installation • High initial costs • Backhaul services
What’s next… Solar / Wind • Issues • Location • Energy storage • Low wattages • Higher EPA • Power supplier?
Checklist for Preparation • Have you baselined your current lighting system? • Do you have influence over lighting selection? • Do you know what you are spending on lighting? • What are your TOTAL maintenance costs? • Does your lighting specification consider new technologies? • Will your infrastructure support new technology? • Have you researched energy rebate programs? • Communicate with your peers. • Take advantage of manufacturer education. • Attend regional meetings to gain information. • Connect with Industry Standards organizations • NEMA, IES, ANSI, APWA, etc.
Questions? Debbie Bell Municipal Regional Sales Manager Hubbell Lighting, Inc. E: firstname.lastname@example.org C: 864-293-8717 Yaser Abdelsamed Director of Innovation and Technology Acuity Brands Lighting E: email@example.com W: 740-587-6003