Learning, Memory, Language, and Intelligence. AP Exam Review. Adaptability Vs. Instinct Adaptability- capacity to learn new behaviors Instinct- inborn Association- How we learn Connecting events that occur in sequence Can be two stimuli Can be a response and reward/punishment
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AP Exam Review
Learning to associate one stimulus
(Shaping= rewarding behaviors that are close to the desired behavior)
The persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information
Flashbulb Memory- especially clear memories of emotionally significant moments or events
Storage is at the heart of memory. Three stores of memory are shown below:
Iconic – visual memory
Echoic- auditory memory
Working memory, the new name for short-term memory, has a limited capacity (7±2) and a short duration (20 seconds).
Most people can easily remember somewhere between 5 and 9 items … better for digits than letters and for what we hear than what we see.
Long-Term Potentiation (LTP)refers to synaptic enhancement after learning (Lynch, 2002).
An increase in serotonin release occurs after learning occurs.
Both Photos: From N. Toni et al., Nature, 402, Nov. 25 1999. Courtesy of Dominique Muller
Heightened emotions (stress-related or otherwise) make for stronger memories. Continued stress may disrupt memory.
Scott Barbour/ Getty Images
AKA Declarative Memory
Can be consciously known and declared
ie: memory of facts and personal experiences
Processed by the hippocampus
After losing his hippocampus in surgery, patient Henry M. (HM) remembered everything before the operation but cannot make new memories. We call this anterograde amnesia. Retrograde amnesia- means loss of old memories!!!
Something we have recently learned interferes with something learned in the past
You take French, then Spanish--- oops you have trouble remembering French Terms.
Sleep can prevent retroactive interference