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Tables, graphs, and diagrams. Barbara Schimmer Jurmala, Latvia, 2006. Based on EPIET material. Contents. Use of tables, graphs and graphics Graphics in descriptive epidemiology describe Graphics in analytical epidemiology compare Designing graphics. Background. Purpose

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tables graphs and diagrams

Tables, graphs, and diagrams

Barbara SchimmerJurmala, Latvia, 2006

Based on EPIET material

contents
Contents
  • Use of tables, graphs and graphics
  • Graphics in descriptive epidemiology
    • describe
  • Graphics in analytical epidemiology
    • compare
  • Designing graphics
epidemiology
Purpose

Description

Time

Place

Person

Clinical features

Comparison

Odds ratios

Relative risks

Methods

Surveillance

Outbreakinvestigations

Other studies:clinical epidemiologyfield trialsexperimental epidemiology

Epidemiology
use of data tables and graphics
Process data

Organisetriage, cleaning

Summariseaggregate

Explore

trends

relationships

errors

Present data

Communicate

Paper

Poster

Screenstatic  animated

Use of data tables and graphics?
paper vs screen
Paper

Time unlimited

Repetition

Details notes?

White, grey and black

Screen

Time < 1 min

No repetition

Less details

Colours possible

Paper vs. screen
tables graphics and diagrams
Tables, graphics, and diagrams
  • Self-explanatory
  • Simple!
  • Title

(what, who, where, when)

  • Define abbreviations and symbols
  • Note data exclusions
  • Reference the source
the epidemic curve 2
The epidemic curve 2
  • Histogram
    • Area proportional to number
    • No space between columns
    • One population
  • X-axis = time
    • Start before epidemic, continue after
    • Interval ≤1/4 of incubation period
  • Y-axis = number of cases
    • Usually one square = one caseEasy to make in Excel
the arithmetic scale line graph 2
The arithmetic-scale line graph 2
  • For time series
  • Show actual changes in magnitude
  • X-axis = time
  • Y-axis = rate (or number) of cases
    • Start at 0
    • Breaks possible, clearly marked
the semilogaritmic scale line graph 2
The semilogaritmic-scale line graph 2
  • For time series when
    • interested in rate of change
  • X-axis = time arithmetic
  • Y-axis = rate (or number) of cases, logarithmic
    • Straight slope = constant rate of change
    • Steep slope = constant rapid change
    • Parallell lines = same rate of change
    • Change in slope = acceleration  deceleration of rate
    • Start at lowest cycle, e.g. 0.1-1 or 1-10
    • No breaks
in graphs
In graphs...
  • Labels for axes, scales and legends
  • Legends or keys if >1 variable
  • Scale divison, appropriate scale
  • Units of measurements in title
  • No grid, no numbers
  • No 3D
the spot map
The spot map

Figure 1. Cases of meningococcal disease in Dublin 1998 by place of residence.

1 dot = 1 case

the area dot or dot density map
The area dot (or dot density) map

Figure 2. Cases of meningococcal disease in Dublin 1998 by area of residence.

1 dot = 1 case

the area map
The area map

Figure 3. Incidence rate (per 100,000) of meningococcal disease in Dublin 1998 by area of residence.

bar charts
Bar charts
  • Order
    • Natural
    • Decreasing or increasing
  • Vertical or horizontal
  • Same width of bars
  • Length = frequency
  • Space between bars and groups, but not within groups
  • Tables are often better
think data ink
Think data-ink

Every bit of ink should have a reason

designing graphics
Designing graphics
  • Show the data
  • Use ink for the data
  • Remove unnecessary ink
  • Remove gimmicks
  • No 3D
  • Careful with colours
summary
Summary
  • Use of graphics Explore and present
  • PresentationPaper vs screen
  • Description
    • Time - line graphs or epicurves
    • Place - maps or tables
    • Person - tables or bar charts
    • Clinical - tables
  • Analysis
    • Comparison - 2x2 tables, other tables
  • Design Save your ink!
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