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PHYSICAL EDUCATION DEPARTMENT. The Muscular System. Learning outcomes. Today you will learn about: The different types of muscle. The structure of muscles. The location of major muscles. Types of muscle fibres. How muscles work in pairs. TYPES OF MUSCLE. 3 Types of muscle.

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slide2

Learning outcomes

Today you will learn about:

The different types of muscle.

The structure of muscles.

The location of major muscles.

Types of muscle fibres.

How muscles work in pairs.

3 types of muscle

TYPES OF MUSCLE

3 Types of muscle

Involuntary Muscle

Cardiac Muscle

Voluntary Muscle

Found within your organs e.g. in your intestines

Found only in the heart

Found in muscles that allow us to move

Where are they found?

Where is it found?

Where can we find an example of each of these types of muscles?

What characteristics makes them different?

Where is it found?

Not under our conscious control – we don’t decide when to move them

Under conscious control – you can decide when to move them

Never stops working

Characteristic ?

Characteristic ?

Characteristic ?

structure of muscles 1
Structure of Muscles 1

Tendons attach the muscle to a bone. The fibres are strong and elastic.

Muscles are made of bundles of fibres which are enclosed in connective tissues.

TASK - Add labels to your diagram

muscle locations
MUSCLE LOCATIONS

TASK - Label the diagram

how muscles work 1
How Muscles Work 1
  • Voluntary muscles produce movement by contracting and relaxing.
  • They get shorter when they contract and longer when they relax.
  • Where tendons attach to the bones is called origins and insertions.

Homework Task

Find out what is the difference between a muscle origin and insertion?

how muscles work 2
How Muscles Work 2

Muscles can only create

movement in one

direction.

Muscles can

only pull a bone into a

new position, they

cannot push it back.

This means that at every

joint there must be

2 muscles to allow movement

Muscles work in pairs

how muscles work 3

How Muscles Work 3

When one muscle contracts (works) the opposing muscle relaxes this is known has antagonistic pairs.

The muscle that contracts to produce the movement is known has the prime mover.

Other muscle will assist the prime mover by contracting at the same time and these are called synergists.

how muscles work 4
How Muscles Work 4

…In Pairs…

The elbow

BICEPS:

Contracting muscle

becomes short and fat

The BICEPS is now

relaxing and becoming

long and thin

TRICEPS:

Relaxing muscle

becomes long and thin

The TRICEPS is now the

contracting muscle

becoming short and fat

how muscles work 5
How Muscles Work 5

…A Group…

The elbow

ORIGIN tendon

Synergist

PECTORALS:

Supporting ‘helpers’

BICEPS:

Contracting muscle

Agonist

INSERTION tendon

TRICEPS:

Relaxing muscle

Antagonist

task muscles work in pairs
TASKMuscles Work in Pairs

How Muscles Work 6

Can you think of another pair of muscles and an exercise where they are used?

muscle fibres 1
Muscle Fibres 1

There are two basic types of muscle fibre.

2 Types

Fast Twitch

Muscle Fibres

Slow Twitch

Muscle Fibres

Tend to favour

endurance

Activities

(aerobic)

Tend to favour power

and strength activities

(anaerobic)

Copy the diagram into your book.

Muscle fibre percentages are genetically determined and vary between people.

muscle fibres 2
Muscle Fibres 2

Qs. How can improved muscle function improve performance?

Qs. What could we suggest about different people’s muscle fibre types and the activity they perform?

slide15

Latissimus dorsi

Swimmer pulling through the water

Gluteals

Sprinting / jumping

Jump to head a ball

Quadriceps

Take off for long / high jump

Gastrocnemius

Abdominals

Somersault in trampolining

Triceps

Putting the shot

Breaststroke swimming

Pectorals

Hamstrings

Tuck jump gymnastics

Ball toss when serving in tennis

Deltoids

Hockey player reaching forward to intercept a ball

Trapezius

Preparation of a set shot in b’ball

Biceps

homework
HOMEWORK

Complete tasks set in class and task sheet 4 muscles and activity.