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PHYSICAL EDUCATION DEPARTMENT THE CIRCULATORY AND RESPIRATORY SYSTEMS 3
LEARNING OUTCOMES Demonstrate an understanding through Q and A and tasks what the following are: Benefits of exercise: the circulatory system. • Stronger cardiac muscle. • Increased stroke volume. • Increased cardiac output. • Lower resting heart rate. • Measuring your pulse.
REVISION Qs. What type of exercise produces lactic acid? Qs What is oxygen dept? Qs. How does duration affect the accumulation of lactic acid and oxygen debt? Qs. How long does it take a sprinter to recover from all-out effort compared to an endurance athlete? Qs. Is it possible to increase the body’s tolerance to lactic acid build-up and oxygen debt?
BENEFITS OF EXERCISE • Exercise is good for us whether we are training to be top sportspeople or more interested in Play Station than playing fields. • In today's world especially in countries like the UK most people lead a sedentary lifestyle which means they sit down a lot. • It is therefore essential that people take enough regular exercise to stay healthy. • For athletes and the general population the benefits of exercise will differ only in the level, intensity and frequency they need to practiced .
STRONGER CARDIAC MUSCLE 1 • Cardiac muscle becomes stronger as a result of regular activity and exercise. • As it grows stronger the heart also increases in size (it is a muscle). • It is not uncommon for trained athletes to have hearts significantly larger than those of the average population. Heart Rate (HR) • The number of times the heart beats per minute. • Blood is pumped into the arteries and they are forced to expand and contract (the pulse).
STRONGER CARDIAC MUSCLE 2 An active heart is bigger, stronger and healthier.
STRONGER CARDIAC MUSCLE 3 A stronger and larger heart produces the following desirable effects: • Increased stroke volume. • Increased cardiac output. • Lower resting heart rate.
INCREASED STROKE VOLUME • This is the amount of blood pumped from the heart during a single beat. • It is normally measured when an athlete is at rest. • Stroke Volume (SV) may be greatly improved by an extended period of training specifically for endurance athletes. • The greater the stroke volume the greater the amount of blood pumped around the body for each heart beat. Qs. What does this mean? More O2 can be delivered to the muscles and organs.
INCREASED CARDIAC OUTPUT 1 • This means how much blood the heart pumps out. • Cardiac Output (CO) is measured in terms of the total volume of blood from the heart during one minute. • This is a combination of the heart rate and stroke volume. HR x SV = CO (BPM) ( BPPSB) (BPO)
INCREASED CARDIAC OUTPUT 2 • In endurance events this increased capacity means that both respiratory and circulation systems work more efficiently. • This allows performance to continue for longer or at a higher level or sometimes both. Qs. What is heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac output and how is cardiac output measured. HR x SV = CO (BPM) ( BPB) (BPO)
LOWER RESTING HEART RATE 1 • A stronger, larger heart pumps more blood around the body each time it beats. • This means that it has to work far less hard to achieve the same results prior to exercising. • A lower resting HR shows that a person has a fit and efficient heart. • Resting HRs vary between 60 and 80 BPM in average people to 50 to 60 BPM in those who exercise regularly. • Each time their heart beats more blood is pumped around the body and so the heart needs to beat less often to achieve the same results as a normal person.
LOWER RESTING HEART RATE 2 • Vary fit individuals can achieve extremely low resting HRs. • Olympic rowing champion Steve Redgrave had at his fittest a resting HR of 40 to 45BPM. • Retired Spanish cycling champion Miguel Indurain had a resting HR of 27BPM. • The average resting HR for a unfit individual is 70BPM. Qs. What affect will the a lower resting HR have on performance?
MEASURING YOUR PULSE 1 • To measure your HR you need to measure your pulse. • Every time your heart beats it pumps out a surge of blood. • Where the large blood vessels are close to the surface of the skin you can feel this surge of blood going through the blood vessels. • To count the number of times your heart BMP (your HR) you need to count your pulse over a minute.
MEASURING YOUR PULSE 2 • Or, count it for 15 seconds and multiply by four. • Or, count for 10 seconds and multiply by 6. The most common sites to measure the pulse are at: • Carotid pulse (Side of the neck). • Radial pulse (wrist). • Femoral pulse (Groin). • Posterior tibial pulse (Ankle).
MEASURING YOUR PULSE 3 Carotid pulse. • To check the carotid pulse, feel for a pulse on the side of the casualty's neck closest to you. • This is done by placing the tips of your first two fingers beside his larynx (Adam's apple).
MEASURING YOUR PULSE 4 Radial pulse. To check the radial pulse, place your first two fingers on the thumb side of the casualty's wrist.
MEASURING YOUR PULSE 5 Femoral pulse. • To check the femoral pulse, press the tips of your first two fingers into the middle of the groin.
MEASURING YOUR PULSE 6 Posterior tibial pulse. • To check the posterior tibial pulse, place your first two fingers on the inside of the ankle.
TASK AND HOMEWORK • Measure your HR and record it. • Compare it to the rest of the group. • Next week this will be measured again before and after exercise to compare the difference. Qs. Do people who take part in endurance activities have lower resting HRs? Research Sir Steven Redgrave, what other factors have affected his performance as an Olympic Gold medallist?