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The Periodic Table

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  1. The Periodic Table

  2. Standards 1. The periodic table displays the elements in increasing atomic number and shows how periodicity of the physical and chemical properties of the elements relates to atomic structure. As a basis for understanding this concept: a. Students know how to relate the position of an element in the periodic table to its atomic number and atomic mass. 1. b. Students know how to use the periodic table to identify metals, semimetals, nonmetals, and halogens. 1. c. Students know how to use the periodic table to identify alkali metals, alkaline earth metals and transition metals, trends in ionization energy, electronegativity, and the relative sizes of ions and atoms. 1. d. Students know how to use the periodic table to determine the number of electrons available for bonding. • e. Students know the nucleus of the atom is much smaller than the atom yet contains most of its mass.

  3. Standards Continued 1. f.* Students know how to use the periodic table to identify the lanthanide, actinide, and transactinide elements and know that the transuranium elements were synthesized and identified in laboratory experiments through the use of nuclear accelerators. 1. g.* Students know how to relate the position of an element in the periodic table to its quantum electron configuration and to its reactivity with other elements in the table. 1. h.* Students know the experimental basis for Thomson’s discovery of the electron, Rutherford’s nuclear atom, Millikan’s oil drop experiment, and Einstein’s explanation of the photoelectric effect. 1. i.* Students know the experimental basis for the development of the quantum theory of atomic structure and the historical importance of the Bohr model of the atom. 1. j.* Students know that spectral lines are the result of transitions of electrons between energy levels and that these lines correspond to photons with a frequency related to the energy spacing between levels by using Planck’s relationship (E = hv).


  4. Key Atomic Number 11 Na Element symbol Element name Sodium 22.99 Average atomic mass*

  5. Key • Atomic Number • Number of Protons • Number of Electrons(when atom is neutrally charged) • Property unique to each element 11 Na Sodium 22.99

  6. Key 11 Na • Element symbol • Sometimes abbreviation of English name • Sometimes abbreviation of Latin/Greek name • Familiarize yourself with them and Chemistry problems will become easier Sodium 22.99

  7. Key 11 Na • Element name • What we call it Sodium 22.99

  8. Key 11 Na Sodium 22.99 Average atomic mass* • Weighted Average number of Protons and Neutrons (approximately)

  9. Organization • Period – horizontal row • Group – vertical column • Class – large family of similar elements (ex. metals, nonmetals, metalloids) • Subclass – smaller division of similar elements (ex. transition metals, rare earth metals)

  10. Going Left to Right Increasing Protons by 1

  11. Going Downward Similar Electron Configurations

  12. Special Case: Hydrogen

  13. Metals

  14. Metals

  15. Alkali Metals

  16. Alkaline Earth Metals

  17. Transition Metals

  18. Transition Metals

  19. Rare Earth Metals

  20. Lanthanide Series

  21. Actinide Series

  22. Metalloids (aka Semi-Metals)

  23. Nonmetals

  24. Regular Nonmetals

  25. Halogens

  26. Special Case: Hydrogen H? H?

  27. Noble Gases

  28. Going Left to Right Increasing Protons by 1

  29. Going Downward Similar Electron Configurations