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Abraham Lincoln. Abraham Lincoln was president of the United States from 1861 until his shocking assassination in 1865.

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    1. Abraham Lincoln • Abraham Lincoln was president of the United States from 1861 until his shocking assassination in 1865.

    2. As president he is best remembered for leading theUnion through the Civil War and freeing Confederate slaves with the 1863 Emancipation Proclamation; for delivering the Gettysburg Address, the most famous oration in American history, on 19 November 1863; and for his tragic assassination by John Wilkes Booth at Ford's Theater in Washington, D.C. Upon Lincoln's death, Andrew Johnson assumed the presidency. The Lincoln Memorial, with its famous statue of Lincoln by Daniel Chester French, was dedicated in Washington in 1922.

    3. John F. Kennedy John F. Kennedy's 1963 assassination was one of the most shocking public events of the 20th century.

    4. FK was elected to replace President Dwight Eisenhower in 1960 (narrowly defeating Eisenhower's vice-president, Richard Nixon); he swept into office with a reputation for youthful charm, impatience, wit and vigor. Kennedy's term was sometimes called the New Frontier, a phrase he coined in his acceptance speech at the 1960 Democratic convention. Kennedy was shot to death by sniper Lee Harvey Oswald during an open-car motorcade in Dallas, Texas on 22 November 1963; two days later, Harvey was shot and killed by another man, Jack Ruby. Kennedy was succeeded by Lyndon Johnson.

    5. Martin Luther King, Jr. • Martin Luther King, Jr. was an African-American clergyman who advocated social change through non-violent means.

    6. A powerful speaker and a man of great spiritual strength, he shaped the American civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s. King was pastor of the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama from 1954-59. There he led blacks in the Montgomery bus boycott of 1955-56, an action inspired by the arrest of Rosa Parks when she refused to give up her seat on a public bus. Racial segregation on city buses was ruled unconstitutional in 1956; the boycott ended in success, and King had become a national figure. King returned to his home town of Atlanta in 1959 and became co-pastor with his father of the Ebenezer Baptist Church, a position he held until his death. On the 100th anniversary of Abraham Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation in 1963, King organized a march on Washington, D.C. that drew 200,000 people demanding equal rights for minorities,at which time he gave the famous lectture “I have a dream”. King won the 1964 Nobel Peace Prize, becoming at the time the youngest recipient ever. His writings included Stride Toward Freedom (1958, a history of the Montgomery bus boycott), Why We Can't Wait (1963) and Where Do We Go From Here? Chaos or Community (1967). King was shot to death by James Earl Ray in 1968 while visiting Memphis, Tennessee.

    7. Bobby Kennedy • Robert Francis "Bobby" Kennedy (November 20, 1925 – June 6, 1968), also called RFK, was one of two younger brothers of U.S. President John F. Kennedy and served as United States Attorney General from 1961 to 1964.

    8. Robert F. Kennedy boldly faced tough problems and challenged the comfortable and complacent. To keep his vision alive, his family and friends founded a living memorial in 1968. • Today the Robert F. Kennedy Memorial is dedicated to advancing the human rights movement through providing innovative support to courageous human rights defenders around the world. Through long-term partnerships and cutting edge methods, we assist advocates who have won the RFK Human Rights Award to boldly confront injustice in support of human freedom. We support investigative journalists and authors who bring light to injustice and encourage the human rights movement through the RFK Book and Journalism Awards. Our Speak Truth to Power program educates the public on the value of the human rights and the courage of its defenders.

    9. Text Structure: It is high time to honor the heroes who helped liberate slaves by forging the Underground Railroad in the early civil-rights struggles in America. By citing examples the author praises the exploits of civil-rights heroes who helped slaves travel the Underground Railroad to freedom.

    10. John Parker

    11. February 2, 1827 • Norfolk, Virginia • Mobile, Alabama

    12. education • iron foundry

    13. moved to the North • Indiana and in Cincinnati, Ohio • from Kentucky escape to the North • John Rankin • January 30, 1900

    14. Levi Coffin • Levi Coffin was an important figure in the Underground Railroad network that helped thousands of runaway slaves escape to freedom in the years before the American Civil War.

    15. Coffin was born on October 28, 1798, in North Carolina. • In 1826, he moved to Indiana and established a pork-processing business. • Due to his religious beliefs, he became a strong opponent of African-American slavery. By the time he turned fifteen, Coffin already had begun to assist runaway slaves

    16. In 1847, he opened a business that sold only goods produced by free laborers. He also became an active participant in the Underground Railroad. • He purportedly helped more than three thousand slaves escape from their masters and gain their freedom in Canada.

    17. Many former slaves went to Canada, where Southern slave owners did not have the legal right to retrieve them. Coffin's active participation in the Underground Railroad caused his fellow abolitionists to nickname him the "president of the Underground Railroad."

    18. Levi Coffin helped African Americans in other ways as well . • He pressured the federal government during the Civil War to establish the Freedmen's Bureau. • In addition, Coffin helped African Americans establish their own businesses and obtain educational opportunities.

    19. He died on September 16, 1877, in Cincinnati. Several years after his death, African Americans in Cincinnati erected a monument over Coffin's grave to honor his contributions.

    20. Everyone was born the same .We are all the sons of God. Everyone was born the same . We are all the sons of God.

    21. Josiah Henson Childhood In Maryland Be sold Make the best

    22. Josiah Henson Be send →Kentucky →Deep South Be separated forever →flight! (Cincinnati →N.Y. →Canada)

    23. Josiah Henson Roll in the sand Dance around because “I’m free!”

    24. True or Fault • 1. Just like Uncle Tom in Uncle Tom’s Cabin, Josiah Henson was a long-suffering slave who was unwilling to stand up for himself. ( ) • 2. All the men and women who forged the Underground Railroad were blacks. ( ) • 3. These railroad conductors were frequently faced with death threats and warnings from the local government. ( ) • 4. Many fugitives chose Canada as their primary destination because slavery had been abolished there.( ) • 5.Character in Uncle Tom’s Cabin represents nothing but everything opposite to Josiah Henson. ( ) F F T T T

    25. True or Fault • 6.Josiah Henson is the only person who forged the Underground Railroad.( ) • 7.The exploits of building Underground Railroad are well sung.( ) • 8.By night, John Parker was a worker in the Underground Railroad.( ) • 9.The Bible insist that every person created to be equal.( ) • 10.Canada was the primary destination for many fugitives because there were plenty of food.( ) F F F T F

    26. Point sentences In paragraph 2: For Josiah Henson has lived on through the character in American fiction that he helped inspire: Uncle Tom , the long-suffering salve in Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin. This sentence means that :Josiah Henson helped the author Harriet Beecher Stowe to create the famous character ,so he is still remembered by others. “Uncle Tom , the long-suffering salve in Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin. “ 是 character 的同位语。 Inspire means stir up the inspiration of somebody.

    27. In line 15 I had traveled here to Henson’s last home-now a historic site that Cater formerly directed to learn more about a man who was ,in many ways, an African-American Moses. In many way means to a great extent. “now a historic site that Cater formerly directed” is used to decorate the word “home”.

    28. In line 29 And it’s about time . For the heroes of the Underground Railroad remain too little remembered , their exploits still largely unsung . I was intent on telling their stories. In these sentences ,the second “remain” is abridged in sentence “their exploits still largely unsung” because its structure is similar with the first one” the heroes of the Underground Railroad remain too little remembered “. “It’s about time” means “it’s high time” . We should use conjecture tone after it. Eg: It ‘s about time that we started work.

    29. The usage of “but” : 1.Henson is but one man on a long list of courageous men and women. “but “means “only” or “just”. 2.There was room for all but two. “but” means “except” or “other than”. 3.I’d love to go ,but I have something to do first. “but“ means “however”.

    30. After reading the text, let’s learn some advice on writing skills which may be of some help to you.

    31. Using library resources You will by now be used to using brainstorming to generate information on topics you write about. However, in writing about complex and serious issues, you cannot expect to generate all the ideas by brainstorming, which focus on what you already know. Suppose you want to write about the impact of the civil-rights movement in American. You may already have some ideas on this issue. By brainstorming, you can develop a general framework. However, that is not sufficient(enough) for you to write a paper on such a serious and complex topic. You will find it necessary to do some library research on the issue. A college library usually has the following basic sources which help you locate the information you need:

    32. General References General references include dictionaries, encyclopedias(百科全书), atlases(地图), etc. They can give you a basic understanding of a topic. Index, Catalogs They give information on what has been written and published about a subject. Abstracts(摘要) Abstracts not only list subject headings, but also summarize key information in a highly condensed(高度浓缩) form. Bibliographies A bibliography——a list of publications on a subject——gives you an overview of what has been published on a given subject. Follow the research guides provided by each library and you should be able to find the necessary information for your essay.

    33. Thank you!