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CO 2 Capture and Storage. CCS. Case Scenario Sustainable development is conflict with our current cultural pattern.
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Sustainable development is conflict with our current cultural pattern.
The vision for a global sustainable development is to maintain and to spread a high living standard, while maintaining a sustainable climate. But with the current global climate changes caused by CO2 emissions, the visions seems quite unrealistic.
The usage of CCS is a temporary solution, and the only solution right now, to the CO2 emission, and acts a first generation in the development plan to a sustainable climate.
Furthermore it’s ability to be integrated in the areas depended on fossil fuels production, is essential for an eventual reduction of CO2 level worldwide.
It has become a worldwide fact that we are facing a critical climatic challenge. Five wedges, to solve this challenge, have been created by Princeton University. This case will examine one of them, Carbon Capture and Storage.
The concept of CO2 storage is simple. Capture the CO2, on the power plant, before it reaches the atmosphere, then compress it to a liquid form, and store it below the ground.
However, this method contains some consequences, on a socio-economical level and a public acceptance. Even though the social consequence is defined by a low risk, the economical consequence is still keeping the method on a “standby”. It’s a question of political influence, and global awareness with this method.
This method won’t be established without the governments agreement and contribution, in addition the public’s approval. That’s why we are raising awareness of this method’s qualities, and why it’s necessary to use this particular method as fast as possible.
Some of the largest contributors of CO2 emissions are facing a conflict. These countries will have difficulties in redirecting their energy sector from being depended on fossil fuels in a short time perspective. At this point the current renewable technologies are not efficient enough. There is a need of a temporary energy solution to maintain our cultural pattern as well as a sustainable climate.
CO2 emissions worldwide. Countries size determined by total amount of CO2 emissions in year 2006.
USA has a well developed infrastructure with 40 years of experience in transporting CO2 gasses by pipelines in context with oil pumping. It would be beneficial to use the CCS method, as the opportunities of storing CO2 in the ground in former oil reservoirs are good.
The "post-combustion" is the most promising method for CCS.In power plants, fuel is burned and the smoke is cleaned for sulphur and particles - exactly as usual. The rest (water and carbon dioxide) is mixed with an amine, which binds the carbon dioxide. Steam is let through the chimney and up into the air. Then a process plant separates the carbon dioxide from the amine - the amine can be reused.Using very high pressure, carbon dioxide is liquefied. The liquid carbon dioxide is now able to be stored underground.Not all places are suitable for CCS. Therefore the underground is carefully analysed using seismic measuring. Saline aquifers (e.g. sandstone), with an impenetrable layer (e.g. clay) above, is the most promising storage solution.Liquid carbon dioxide is pumped underground and stored permanently.
Potential underground storage layers.
The present power production & the potentiel usage of CCS method.
Illustration’s contributed by Vattenfall AB.
The present power production is defined by coal fired plants with CO2 emission. The potential CCS application will not only remove the CO2 from the produced smoke, but also remove it from the atmosphere layout. Because of the combination of coal and biomass, we will still be able to maintain the same energy efficiency, and the same energy output. While we store the CO2 below the ground.
This illustration shows power production with fossil fuels, combined with the CCS method. NB: the CCS application is on the right side of the line.
Made by: Mohammed Daoud, Joachim Johansen, Elombe Parfait, Casper Petersen, Louise Brand, Jakob Mosumgaard & Maria Karlsen.