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CS 214 by Jayson G. Mauricio sk_jam28@yahoo 0906-1531294 PowerPoint Presentation
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CS 214 by Jayson G. Mauricio sk_jam28@yahoo 0906-1531294

CS 214 by Jayson G. Mauricio sk_jam28@yahoo 0906-1531294

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CS 214 by Jayson G. Mauricio sk_jam28@yahoo 0906-1531294

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  1. Introduction to Internet and HTML CS 214by Jayson G. Mauriciosk_jam28@yahoo.com0906-1531294

  2. LECTURE 1 Introduction to Internet CS 214: Introduction to Internet and HTML by Jayson G. Mauricio

  3. What is an Internet? • Computer-based worldwide information network. • Composed of a large number of smaller interconnected networks • International computer network linking together thousands of individual networks at military and government agencies, educational institutions, nonprofit organizations, industrial and financial corporations of all sizes, and commercial enterprises (called gateways or service providers) that enable individuals to access the network. The most popular features of the Internet include electronic mail (e-mail), discussion groups (called newsgroups or bulletin boards, where users can post messages and look for responses on a system called Usenet), on-line conversations (called chats), adventure and role-playing games, information retrieval, and electronic commerce (e-commerce). CS 214: Introduction to Internet and HTML by Jayson G. Mauricio

  4. PC A PC A PC D PC C PC D PC C SERVER SERVER PC B PC B Internet- Computer based worldwide information CS 214: Introduction to Internet and HTML by Jayson G. Mauricio

  5. Importance of Internet • Information • Communication -Effective communication with people around the world. -Inexpensive communication. Example Email, mirc CS 214: Introduction to Internet and HTML by Jayson G. Mauricio

  6. Client / Server Architecture • Client – user, subscriber = Information Receiver • Server – provider – information provider CS 214: Introduction to Internet and HTML by Jayson G. Mauricio

  7. How to Connect to Internet 1. Log on in Network. 2. Request information on a remote server. 3. The server sends the information to the client in a form of a file. CS 214: Introduction to Internet and HTML by Jayson G. Mauricio

  8. Downloading – The process of retrieving files form a remote server to users terminal. • Hypertext – Interlinked system of documents. • Hyperlink – Portions of the hypertext documents that are linked to other related documents CS 214: Introduction to Internet and HTML by Jayson G. Mauricio

  9. Accessing Categories • Dedicated access- the computer is directly connected to the internet via router. Using cable, router. • Dial-up access – a computer connects to the internet with a temporary connection. Tel. wire Analog P.C. DIGITAL P.C. DIGITAL I.S.P. MODEM MODEM CS 214: Introduction to Internet and HTML by Jayson G. Mauricio

  10. Packet - small units of information. • Modem – a device that converts the electronic signals from a computer into signal that can be transmitted into telephone lines. • TCP/IP – Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol • IP – Internet Protocol - Network address • URL – Uniform Resource Locator • BANDWIDTH – the amount of data that a computer network can transmit. • NETWORK – is the techniques physical connections and computers programs used to links two or more computers. CS 214: Introduction to Internet and HTML by Jayson G. Mauricio

  11. 3 Components of a Network • Application Software – consists of computer programs that interface with network users and permits sharing of information. Ex. Windows, DOS • Network Software – consists of computer programs that establish protocol or rules, for computer to talk with one another. Ex. UNIX • Network Hardware – physical component that connect computer. Ex. Modem, tel lines, NIC card, UTP cable CS 214: Introduction to Internet and HTML by Jayson G. Mauricio

  12. Transmission Schemes • WWW - World Wide Web • FTP – File Transfer Protocol - File Structure • Gopher – Enhanced FTP • Telnet – LAN CS 214: Introduction to Internet and HTML by Jayson G. Mauricio

  13. ARPANET • First name of Internet • Used for Advanced Research Project Agents • Network for military purposes. CS 214: Introduction to Internet and HTML by Jayson G. Mauricio

  14. History of Internet and Networking • 1791 – French Optical Telegraph Network • 1837 – Morse demonstrates the electric telegraph • 1845 – American Morse code becomes telegraph standard • 1851 – First submarine telegraph cable between London & Paris • 1876 – Alex Bell invents harmonic telegraphy • 1877 – Bell Telco grows to 1,000 users • 1884 – Unshielded Twisted Pairs (UTP) leads to the explosion of communication • 1902 – Marconi sends wireless communication across Atlantic • 1930 – Telephone network outgrew telegraph network but remains analog CS 214: Introduction to Internet and HTML by Jayson G. Mauricio

  15. History of Internet and Networking • 1957 – The USSR launches Sputnik, the first artificial earth satellite. In response, the United States forms the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) within the Department of Defense (DoD) to establish US lead in science and technology applicable to the military. • 1960 – Optical fibers was first used - Roberts & Davies invented packet switching - Baran proposed Arpanet CS 214: Introduction to Internet and HTML by Jayson G. Mauricio

  16. History of Internet and Networking • 1962 – Paul Baran, of the RAND Corporation (a government agency), was commissioned by the U.S. Air Force to do a study on how it could maintain its command and control over its missiles and bombers, after a nuclear attack. This was to be a military research network that could survive a nuclear strike, decentralized so that if any locations (cities) in the U.S. were attacked, the military could still have control of nuclear arms for a counter-attack. - Baran's finished document described several ways to accomplish this. His final proposal was a packet switched network. - "Packet switching is the breaking down of data into data grams or packets that are labeled to indicate the origin and the destination of the information and the forwarding of these packets from one computer to another computer until the information arrives at its final destination computer. This was crucial to the realization of a computer network. If packets are lost at any given point, the message can be resent by the originator." CS 214: Introduction to Internet and HTML by Jayson G. Mauricio

  17. History of Internet and Networking • 1968 – ARPA awarded the ARPANET contract to BBN. BBN had selected a Honeywell minicomputer as the base on which they would build the switch. The physical network was constructed in 1969, linking four nodes: University of California at Los Angeles, SRI (in Stanford), University of California at Santa Barbara, and University of Utah. The network was wired together via 50 Kbps circuits. • 1969 – Arpanet was constructed, first packet data network • 1970 – A 4-node Arpanet was born CS 214: Introduction to Internet and HTML by Jayson G. Mauricio

  18. History of Internet and Networking • 1972 – The first e-mail program was created by Ray Tomlinson of BBN using an intra machine email program (SNDMSG) and an experimental file transfer program. - Ray Tomlinson uses the @ sign - The Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) was renamed the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (or DARPA) - ARPANET was currently using the Network Control Protocol or NCP to transfer data. This allowed communications between hosts running on the same network. • 1973 – Development began on the protocol later to be called TCP/IP, it was developed by a group headed by Vinton Cerf from Stanford and Bob Kahn from DARPA. This new protocol was to allow diverse computer networks to interconnect and communicate with each other. CS 214: Introduction to Internet and HTML by Jayson G. Mauricio

  19. History of Internet and Networking • 1974 – First Use of term Internet by Vinton Cerf and Bob Kahn in paper on Transmission Control Protocol. • 1976 – Dr. Robert M. Metcalfe develops Ethernet, which allowed coaxial cable to move data extremely fast. This was a crucial component to the development of LANs. - The packet satellite project went into practical use. SATNET, Atlantic packet Satellite network, was born. This network linked the United States with Europe. Surprisingly, it used INTELSAT satellites that were owned by a consortium of countries and not exclusively the United States government. - The Department of Defense began to experiment with the TCP/IP protocol and soon decided to require it for use on ARPANET. CS 214: Introduction to Internet and HTML by Jayson G. Mauricio

  20. History of Internet and Networking • 1979 – USENET (the decentralized news group network) was created by Steve Bellovin, a graduate student at University of North Carolina, and programmers Tom Truscott and Jim Ellis. It was based on UUCP. - The Creation of BITNET, by IBM, "Because its Time Network", introduced the "store and forward" network. It was used for email and listservs. • 1981 – National Science Foundation created backbone called CSNET 56 Kbps network for institutions without access to ARPANET. Vinton Cerf proposed a plan for an inter-network connection between CSNET and the ARPANET. CS 214: Introduction to Internet and HTML by Jayson G. Mauricio

  21. History of Internet and Networking • 1983 – Internet Activities Board (IAB) was created. On January 1st, every machine connected to ARPANET had to use TCP/IP. TCP/IP became the core Internet protocol and replaced NCP entirely. -The University of Wisconsin created Domain Name System (DNS). This allowed packets to be directed to a domain name, which would be translated by the server database into the corresponding IP number. This made it much easier for people to access other servers, because they no longer had to remember numbers. CS 214: Introduction to Internet and HTML by Jayson G. Mauricio

  22. History of Internet and Networking • 1984 – The ARPANET was divided into two networks: MILNET and ARPANET. MILNET was to serve the needs of the military and ARPANET to support the advanced research component, Department of Defense continued to support both networks. - Upgrade to CSNET was contracted to MCI. New circuits would be T1 lines, 1.5 Mbps which is twenty-five times faster than the old 56 Kbps lines. IBM would provide advanced routers and Merit would manage the network. New network was to be called NSFNET (National Science Foundation Network), and old lines were to remain called CSNET. CS 214: Introduction to Internet and HTML by Jayson G. Mauricio

  23. History of Internet and Networking • 1985 – The National Science Foundation began deploying its new T1 lines, which would be finished by 1988. • 1986 – The Internet Engineering Task Force or IETF was created to serve as a forum for technical coordination by contractors for DARPA working on ARPANET, US Defense Data Network (DDN), and the Internet core gateway system. • 1987 – BITNET and CSNET merged to form the Corporation for Research and Educational Networking (CREN), another work of the National Science Foundation. • 1988 – Soon after the completion of the T1 NSFNET backbone, traffic increased so quickly that plans immediately began on upgrading the network again. CS 214: Introduction to Internet and HTML by Jayson G. Mauricio

  24. History of Internet and Networking • 1990 – Merit, IBM and MCI formed a not for profit corporation called ANS, Advanced Network & Services, which was to conduct research into high speed networking. It soon came up with the concept of the T3, a 45 Mbps line. NSF quickly adopted the new network and by the end of 1991 all of its sites were connected by this new backbone. -While the T3 lines were being constructed, the Department of Defense disbanded the ARPANET and it was replaced by the NSFNET backbone. The original 50Kbps lines of ARPANET were taken out of service. -Tim Berners-Lee and CREN in Geneva implemented a hypertext system to provide efficient information access to the members of the international high-energy physics community, popularly known as WWW (World Wide Web). CS 214: Introduction to Internet and HTML by Jayson G. Mauricio

  25. History of Internet and Networking • 1991 – CSNET (which consisted of 56Kbps lines) was discontinued having fulfilled its important early role in the provision of academic networking service. A key feature of CREN is that its operational costs are fully met through dues paid by its member organizations. • 1992 - World Bank became on-line. • 1993 – InterNIC created by NSF to provide specific Internet services: directory and database services (by AT&T), registration services (by Network Solutions Inc.), and information services (by General Atomics/CERFnet). - Marc Andreessen and NCSA and the University of Illinois developed a graphical user interface to the WWW, called "Mosaic for X". Mosaic was the first web browser. -U.S. White House became on-line. CS 214: Introduction to Internet and HTML by Jayson G. Mauricio

  26. History of Internet and Networking • 1994 – No major changes were made to the physical network. The most significant thing that happened was the growth. Many new networks were added to the NSF backbone. Hundreds of thousands of new hosts were added to the INTERNET during this time period. -Pizza Hut offers pizza ordering on its Web page. -$50 annual fee is imposed on domains, excluding .edu and .gov domains which are still funded by the National Science Foundation. • 1998 – Hobbes’ Internet timeline is released as Request for Comment (RFC) 2235 and FYI32. -Electronic postal stamps became a reality with the U.S. Postal Service allowing stamps to be purchased and downloaded for printing from the Web. • 1996 – Internet host was at 10 million and growing • 1999 – WAP, cellular applications, wireless device CS 214: Introduction to Internet and HTML by Jayson G. Mauricio

  27. Some Restrictions on Internet Use around the World • China: Requires users and ISPs to register with the police • Germany: Cuts off access to some newsgroups carried on compuserve • Saudi Arabia: Confines Internet access to Universities and hospitals • Singapore: Requires political and religious content, Providers to register with the state • New Zealand: Classifies computer disk as “publication” that can be censored and seized source: Human Rights watch CS 214: Introduction to Internet and HTML by Jayson G. Mauricio