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Culture:Lecture #5 topics • What is culture? • Why do we have culture? • Cross-cultural similarities: Our common beliefs • Cross-cultural differences: East vs. West • Immigration: When East meets West
What is culture? culture: • combination of _________ & _________ • shared by people within a definable population • norms are _________ to new members
Why do we have culture? EVOLUTIONARY REASONS • living in groups enhanced survival • shared beliefs, expectations, & practices _________ behaviours necessary for survival • norms enhancing survival were _________ & _________ • culture = _________
Why do we have culture? PSYCHOLOGICAL REASONS terror management theory: • culture protects us from _________ • engaging in cultural practices gives us __________________ • e.g., religion (life after death); giving our children our names
Why do we have culture? evidence: thinking about death makes us • _________ • _________ • _________
Why do we have culture? need for knowledge: • shared perceptions of reality validates our own perceptions • evidence from studies manipulating need for _________(need for quick & certain answers)
Why do we have culture? evidence: increased need for closure makes us • _________ • _________ • _________
Cross-cultural similarities Bedroom 1: mother, father, & baby Bedroom 2: 6- & 11-year old daughters Bedroom 3: 15-year old son
Cross-cultural similarities incest taboo: _________ relations should not engage in sexual relations preservation of female chastity: ensures females have _________ to raise offspring protection of the vulnerable: parents are best able to protect the most vulnerable of their offspring
Cross-cultural similarities autonomy: helps develop an _________sense of self sacred unit: the parents • these 2 beliefs _________likely to be endorsed by North Americans
Cross-cultural differences My son…is the oldest of three children, a moderately religious person, who believes in good moral values and comes from a decent family. He’s 5’9”, fair[-skinned], currently working full time and looking forward to completing [a] digital design media course in graphics, print, and web design. Other words to describe his character would be [he’s] willing to be a better Muslim. Second child is sister who is married and youngest is son going to school. We basically belong to Hyderabad / Bangalore, India. From a Syed family. All details and photos can be provided on contact. Please do send your details along with photos, if you are serious, please contact with consent from parents.
Cross-cultural differences Gujarati Vaishnav parents invite correspondence from never married Gujariti well settled, preferably green card holder from respectable family for green card holder daughter, 29 years, 5’4”, good looking, doing CPA.
Cross-cultural differences I am a professional…I would describe myself as ambitious, fun-loving with a zest for life. I like sport[s], theatre, cinema, travel, socializing. I enjoy eating out, fine wine. Fave food at the moment is probably Thai. The person I am looking for will be dynamic, fun-loving with a wide variety of interests.
Cross-cultural differences About me: Independent, athletic, positive ambivert with a penchant for chocolate, salsa and authentic smiles…Just looking to meet some new friends interested in art, literature, and salsa/ bachata dancing. Interested in meeting someone who enjoys learning new things, who cares about world affairs, and who enjoys talking about books, films, and opera.
Confucianism individual must be cultivated into social being individual is not separate from groups considering others’ needs is a sign of _________ Greek philosophies “to thine own self be true” focus on fulfilling personal wishes, desires, regardless of others freedom of _________ (self-actualization) Cross-cultural differences
Cross-cultural differences CONSEQUENCES FOR THE SELF-CONCEPT on Twenty Statements Task… • East Asians mention more _________self-descriptions • e.g., “I am… _________” • North Americans mention more _________self-descriptions • e.g., “I am… _________”
Cross-cultural differences CONSEQUENCES FOR SELF-ESTEEM • North American self is _________; defined by fixed internal traits • goal: to stand out from others in a positive way • use more _________self-descriptors • _________self-esteem levels • East Asian self is _________; changes to fit social situations • goal: to fit in & NOT be distinctive • use more _________self-descriptors • _________self-esteem levels
Cross-cultural differences Kim & Markus (1999):
Cross-cultural differences CONSEQUENCES FOR SELF-ENHANCEMENT • North Americans self-_________ • criticism hurts positive self-image • negative feedback _________; positive feedback _________ • East Asians self-_________ • criticism doesn’t hurt as much • negative feedback motivates them to try harder the next time
Cross-cultural differences CONSEQUENCES FOR ATTRIBUTION STYLES
Cross-cultural differences CONSEQUENCES FOR ATTRIBUTION STYLES • East Asians make _________attributions • focus on _________influences on behaviour • North Americans make _________attributions • focus on _________influences on behaviour • e.g., Morris & Peng (1995) “murders” study
Cross-cultural differences CONSEQUENCES FOR CONSISTENCY • North Americans are motivated to maintain attitude-behaviour consistency • seen as a moral obligation • East Asians are less concerned with consistency • show _________attitude change in dissonance studies • since self adapts to different situations, internal attitudes won’t necessarily match outward behaviours • consistency is perceived as _________
Immigration when settling in a new country: • do I want to _________my heritage culture? • do I want to _________my new culture?
Immigration 4 strategies:
Immigration biculturals: • identify with both heritage & adopted cultures • show _________psychological adjustment • some switch easily between their 2 cultures • e.g., in Western contexts, I’ll be more Western; in Korean contexts, I’ll be more Korean • others have difficulty switching cultures • e.g., in Western contexts, I’ll be more Korean; in Korean contexts, I’ll be more Western