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Culture and Psychology. of Arab-Muslim Societies. Course Topics. Introduction to Middle East – North Africa “culture area” Social structure, family organization & “code” of honor and modesty Islam and Islamism Modernization, underdevelopment & identity Gender, children, & development

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culture and psychology
Culture and Psychology

of Arab-Muslim Societies

course topics
Course Topics
  • Introduction to Middle East – North Africa “culture area”
  • Social structure, family organization & “code” of honor and modesty
  • Islam and Islamism
  • Modernization, underdevelopment & identity
  • Gender, children, & development
  • Arab Spring protests & revolutions
readings
Readings
  • Naguib Mahfouz: Palace Walk
  • The Middle East: A Cultural Psychology
  • Henry Munson: Islam and Revolution in the Middle East
  • Ryszard Kapucinski: Shah of Shahs
  • Excerpts from books & articles

( many on electronic reserve )

assignments
Assignments
  • “Key concept” papers (~3-4 pgs.) on each section of the course
  • Participation in class discussions
  • Research Paper:

paper

teach-in

culture area concept
“Culture Area” Concept
  • Political organization (“tribes”)
  • Language
  • Subsistance economy
  • Kinship, family organization, marriage
  • Ritual & religion
middle east as a culture area
Middle East as a “Culture Area”?
  • “Middle East” ?
  • Arab ?
  • Muslim ?
  • Arab – Muslim ?
  • Mediterranean ?
arab ethnicity arabian penn present day syria iraq jordan palestine
Arab Ethnicity:Arabian Penn.+ present-daySyriaIraqJordanPalestine
m e n a middle east north africa
M.E.N.A.Middle East & North Africa

Border areas:

  • Turkey?
  • Iran?
  • Sudan?
  • Pakistan?
  • Afghanistan?
germain tillion republic of cousins
Germain Tillion: “Republic of Cousins”
  • Circum-Mediterranean formed culture area
  • Industrial revolution transformed Europe
  • Enabled Europe to colonize MENA
  • MENA underdevelops
  • Nationalist response defends “traditions” against colonizers
  • Patriarchy & religion embraced (by some) as core of cultural authenticity
westerners study the orient
Westerners Study the Orient

Knowledge created to:

  • Colonize and administer
  • Imagine “primitive” contrast to civilization
  • Imagine freedom & sensuality repressed by civilization

1978

mini stereotypes katherine tidrick
Mini-Stereotypes(Katherine Tidrick)
  • Primitive Savage & Brutal Tyrant
  • Noble Savage -- Bedouin
  • Exotic-Erotic Woman of the Harem
  • Patriarchal misogynist
  • Terrorist
1920s 1960s exotic romantic
1920s – 1960s: Exotic / Romantic

Rudolph Valentino: The Sheikh

planet of the arabs http www youtube com watch v mi1znejearw
Planet of the Arabshttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mi1ZNEjEarw
misunderstandings
Misunderstandings
  • Despotism & strife stem from a tribal mentality equipped with modern weapons
  • The “honor code” monopolizes the Middle Eastern psyche and subverts modernization
  • Islamic “fatalism” breeds passivity and stalls development
  • The momentum of tradition resists modernization
  • Terrorism springs from a vein of fanaticism in Arab culture and psyche
history of modern egypt
History of “modern” Egypt
  • 16th – 18th centuries: Ottoman (Turkish) rule
  • 1798: Napoleon invades
  • 1882: British invade
  • 1910s: Nationalist Movement
  • 1919: Egyptian revolt
  • 1922: limited Independence
  • 1952: Army Coup – Nasser -- independence
world war i
World War I
  • Allies promise Arabs independence in exchange for cooperation against Germany
  • Britain and France secretly agreed to divide Middle East as colonies after WWI (“Sykes-Picot pact”)
  • Britain increased military in Egypt, forced Egyptians to sell cotton & fodder below market price, conscripted 500,000 Egyptians
world war i39
World War I
  • 1917 Bolshevik Revolution: Sykes-Picot pact revealed
  • Occupation + economic hardships + Sykes-Picot betrayal fueled nationalist movement
  • Saad Zaghlul emerged as leader
  • Delegation – wafd – to negotiate independence at Paris Peace Conference, but exiled
egyptian independence
Egyptian Independence
  • 1922: Britain granted Egypt independence
  • Created parliament + monarchy on British model
  • Kept rights to military occupation that allowed control of Egyptian politics until 1952 coup by Gamal Nasser and “Free Officers”
nasser era
Nasser Era
  • Arab Nationalism
    • Unite M.E. as “Arab nation” inclusive of all religions
    • Many leaders were Arab Christians
  • Democracy and moderate socialism
  • Leader of newly-independent “Third World” non-aligned nations
    • Neutral in Cold War between U.S. and U.S.S.R.
nasser era con t
Nasser Era – con’t
  • Social progress:
    • Land reform
    • Education
    • Health care
    • Guaranteed jobs
    • Economic growth
  • Initial popular enthusiasm
  • Cult of personality  dictatorship
slide46
1967
  • Crushing defeat by Israel showed failure of Nasser and of “Arab nationalism”
  • Period of “self-criticism” by intellectuals and artists
  • Youth begins turning to Islam
    • Mosques begin filling
    • Young women put on headscarves and veils
    • Gov’t supports Islamists to undermine leftists
naguib mahfouz
Naguib Mahfouz
  • 1912: born in old quarter of Cairo
  • 1919: watched demonstrations & protesters killed by British troops in Egyptian Revolution
  • 1934: University of Cairo
    • Worked on M.A. in philosophy
  • Began writing
  • 1939-1954: Ministry of Islamic Affairs bureaucrat
  • 1954-1969: gov’t foundation for cinema
naguib mahfouz48
Naguib Mahfouz
  • 1952: Completed “Cairo Trilogy”
    • A few months before Nasser’s coup
    • Written as 1500 page book; then divided into 3
  • 1952 – 1959: stopped writing
  • 1960s: wrote poetry, screenplays, novels
    • allegories critical of Islamism & corrupt secular rulers
  • 1988: Nobel Prize
  • 1994: stabbed by Islamists, partly paralyzed
  • 2006: died
slide58

Cairo:

Khan al-khalili

&

Naguib Mahfouz cafe

egypt 1970s 2011
Egypt 1970s - 2011
  • 1970s: liberal-leftist opposition crushed; gov’t supports Islamists
  • 1981: Sadat assassinated by Islamists
  • 1990s: Islamist attacks
  • 2000s: increasing piety

decreasing Islamism

slide72

Mubarek:

“President” to prisoner

warning
Warning ! ! !
  • The course focuses too much on “traditional” social organization & culture.
  • “Modernization” is accelerating & its mixed consequences are not known.
wednesday
Wednesday
  • The Middle East:

Introduction

Chapter 1: “Misunderstandings”

  • Palace Walk: Chapters 1 – 4
  • Bring discussion notes !!!