The Major Religions of the World. How Many Do You Know?. List all of the RELIGIONS of the world that you can think of. WORLD RELIGIONS. We will study these…. Judaism Hinduism Buddhism Christianity Islam. What are the characteristics of a religion?. What is a Religion?.
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How Many Do You Know? • List all of the RELIGIONS of the world that you can think of. WORLD RELIGIONS
We will study these…. • Judaism • Hinduism • Buddhism • Christianity • Islam
What is a Religion? • Religion – an organized system of beliefs, ceremonies, practices and worship that centers on one or more gods
Monotheism vs. Polytheism • Mono – “one” • Poly – “many” • Theism – the belief in god • What do these terms mean?
Note-Taking Format • Important Text and Places • Important People • Symbols • Rituals and Celebrations • General Information
World Religion #1 Judaism
Judaism • 14 million people world wide • 1st “monotheistic” religion in history • The Torah, or Jewish holy book, teaches the basic laws of Judaism
Judaism • The universal symbol of Judaism is the Star of David, the emblem of King David who ruled the Kingdom of Israel from 1000 – 962 BC
Ritual, Worship & Celebration • At age 13 Jewish children enter into the religious community • Bar Mitzvah – Men • Bat Mitzvah - Women • House of Worship • The Synagogue • Leadership • Religious services are conducted by a rabbi (“teacher”)
Ritual, Worship & Celebration • Many Jews make the pilgrimage to the “Wailing Wall in Jerusalem • Built in the 2nd century BCE • Remains of a temple that had stood for close to 500 years • Destroyed by the Romans • Thought to be the most sacred of places • Temple itself was thought to be the place where God resides on earth. • Praying at the Wailing Wall signifies being in the presence of the Divine
Ritual, Worship & Celebration • What is “Kosher” • Strict dietary laws • Forbids the eating of “unclean” animals such as pigs or shellfish • Dictates how certain foods should be prepared • Important Jewish holy days include: • Chanukah, Rosh Hashanah, Yom Kippur, and Passover
Review Questions & Homework • What is the holy book of Judaism? • What is the role of rabbi in Jewish tradition? • What does the term “kosher” refer to? • HOMEWORK (Due tomorrow) • Define and explain: • Chanukah • Rosh Hashanah • Yom Kippur • Passover
World Religion #2 Christianity
History of Christianity • Founded c.33CE in Palestine • Founded by Jesus and his followers • Jesus is believed to be the messiah • The most important symbol is the Cross • Symbols the death of Jesus • Currently, main locations are: • North America • South America • Europe
Christianity Facts • Over 2B followers…largest religion in the world • Major Sects • Roman Catholic (RCC) • Eastern Orthodox (EO) • Protestant • House of Worship • Church or Chapel • Leaders of the Church • Hierarchy of priests and Pope (RCC) and (EO)
Christianity Beliefs • Sacred Text • The Bible (Old and New Testament) • Important Rituals & Worship Practices • The Seven Sacraments • Baptism & Communion are two examples • Major Holidays • Easter and Christmas • Belief in God • One God (a trinity of Father, Son, Holy Spirit)
The Cathedral of The Resurrection of Christ in Saint Petersburg
Review Questions • Why is Jesus Christ central to the Christian religion? • What do Christians hope to achieve by following the teachings of Jesus Christ?
World Religion #3 Hinduism
Hinduism • Third largest religion in the world • Over 800 million followers • One of the oldest surviving religions • Formulated by 1500BCE • Basic principles are found in The 4 Vedas – sacred writings • Priests are called Brahmins • There is no one “leader” or “founder” • It is the major religion of India
Early Hinduism • Polytheistic Religion • Thousands of deities • One universal spirit – Brahman • Three Major Gods • Brahma, Vishnu, & Shiva • Reincarnation – passing through many lives to reach the Brahman • Karma – consequences of how a person lives
Hinduism Beliefs • God in Hinduism is the Supreme Being • Everywhere, all-knowing, and all-powerful • The purpose of life is to obtain liberation from the cycle of reincarnation • People reach true enlightenment and happiness when they free themselves of earthly desires
Hinduism Information • Rituals • Worship at home and in temples • Temples can have multiple shrines to gods • Worship as individuals and families, not as a congregation
Hinduism Information • Sects • Shaktism • Shakti – supreme Goddess • Vaishnavites • Vishnu – the Preserver • Shaivites • Shiva – the Destroyer • Reform Hinduism • Monotheistic & more “western”
Hinduism Information • Celebrations • Diwali • Hindu New Year • Festival of Holi • Triumph of good over evil • Pilgrimage to the Ganges River in India • Hindus believe the river has healing powers
Hinduism Review • According to Hindu beliefs What is the importance of the Ganges River in India? • What are the three main gods of Hinduism?
World Religion #4 Buddhism
Who is the Buddha? • Founder-Siddhartha Gautama (c.520BCE) • Known as the Buddha or “enlightened one” • Present spiritual leader -Dalai Lama • Head of Buddhist Church • 4th largest religion in the world today • Over 300 million followers • Mainly found in China, Japan, Korea, SE Asia
Buddhist Beliefs • Purpose of life is to escape the cycle of rebirth (reincarnation) and attain nirvana • Nirvana – a state of wisdom • All living things can be reincarnated • Animals can possibly be reborn into humans • How to achieve Nirvana? • Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path • Key to happiness was detachment from all worldly goods and desires
Buddhism Information • Worship Practices • Meditation – deep thought & reflection • Offering of gifts of food, flowers, or candles • Rituals • Importance of the lotus flower • Believer can blossom while rooted in the impurity of the world
Buddhism Information • Major Buddhist Sects • Theravada • As close as possible to Buddha’s teachings • Mahayana • More accepting of the changing world
The Dalai Lama – The present spiritual leader of Buddhism
Buddhism Review • According to the Buddha, how does a person achieve happiness and fulfillment? • Why do Buddhists take special care as to not kill a living being?
History of Islam • Founded in 622CE • Founded by Muhammad in Saudi Arabia • Muhammad is considered to be a prophet • A messenger of Allah (God) • Two Major Sects (split c.650CE) • Sunni • Shi’a (or Shiite) • Leader of Muslim community must be a descendant of Muhammad’s son-in-law (Ali)
Islamic Beliefs • Five Pillars of Islam • Faith • Allah is the one true God • Prayer • Five times a day • Charity • Giving to the poor • Fast • During Ramadan • Pilgrimage to Mecca
Islamic Beliefs • One God – Allah • Believe in all the prophets of Judaism and Christianity • Holy Celebrations • Id al-Fitr • End of Ramadan Fasting • Eid al-Adha • End of Islamic calendar
Islamic Beliefs • Sacred Text • Qur’an (Koran) • Hadith • Religious Law • Sharia • House of Worship • Mosque • Leaders of the Religion • imams
Islam Facts • Second largest religion in the world • Over 1 billion followers • Month of Ramadan • Muslims fast during the day • Most important day is the “Night of Power” • The night that the angel Gabriel 1st spoke to Muhammad • Major Areas in the World • Middle East • SE Asia