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PSYCHOLOGY. PSYCHOLOGY. The scientific study of behaviour and mental processes, and the factors that influence these processes. Schools of Psychology. A .) Behaviourism John Watson (1878 -1958) Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) BF Skinner (1904 – 1990 ) B.) Psychoanalysis

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psychology1
PSYCHOLOGY

The scientific study of behaviour and mental processes, and the factors that influence these processes.

schools of psychology
Schools of Psychology
  • A.) Behaviourism
    • John Watson (1878 -1958)
    • Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936)
    • BF Skinner (1904 – 1990)
  • B.) Psychoanalysis
    • Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
    • Karen Horney (1885-1952)
    • Carl Jung (1875-1961)
    • Erik Erikson (1902 – 1994)
schools of thought continued
Schools of Thought Continued…

C.) Humanism

  • Abraham Maslow (1908-1970)
  • Victor Frankle(1905-1997)
  • Carl Rogers (1902 – 1987)

D.) Cognitive

  • Jean Piaget (1896 - 1980)
  • Noam Chomsky (1928 - )
  • Albert Bandura (1925 - )
  • Elizabeth Loftus (1944- )
  • LetaStetterHollingworth (1886-1939)
psychodynamic theorists
Psychodynamic Theorists
  • PYSCHODYNAMIC THEORY – an approach to therapy that focuses on resolving a patient’s conflicted conscious and unconscious feelings
  • Unlocking the unconscious mind is the key to understanding human behaviour and relationships. This is based on Sigmund Freud’s PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY that states all human behaviour is influenced by early childhood and that childhood experiences influence the unconscious mind throughout our life
sigmund freud 1856 1939
Sigmund Freud - 1856-1939
  • Freud was an Austrian neurologist who founded the discipline of psychoanalysis
  • He is well known for his conception of human consciousness as consisting of the id, the ego, and the superego.
  • To uncover the unconscious mind, Freud used various methods including examining dreams and fantasies, and having clients engage in FREE ASSOCIATION, where they relaxed and said whatever came to mind, regardless of how silly or embarrassing.
  • Patients would often PROJECT their feelings onto the therapist (also called TRANSFERENCE), which allowed them to examine their feelings and gain insight into their current relationships.
karen horney horn eye 1885 1952
Karen Horney(Horn-eye) - 1885-1952
  • She was a German psychoanalyst.
  • Her theories questioned some traditional Freudian views, particularly his theory of sexuality, where she did not believe that personality is strongly influenced by sexual conflicts in childhood; Freud also didn’t accurately represent females.
  • She is often classified as Neo-Freudian.
  • She’s the founder of feminine psychology, where she argued that women were pushed by society and culture to depend on men for both love and status.
  • “FEMALE HUMAN IDENTITY” – issues unique to

females.

  • Neurotic disorder – mental disorder involving

Anxiety and fear.

carl jung 1875 1961
Carl Jung – 1875 - 1961
  • Jung was a Swiss psychiatrist, the founder of analytical psychology. J
  • Jung is considered the first modern psychiatrist to view the human psyche as "by nature religious" and make it the focus of exploration.[
  • Jung is one of the best known in the field of dream analysis and symbolization.
  • Many psychological concepts were first proposed by Jung, including the archetype, the collective unconscious, the complex, and synchronicity.
  • A popular psychometric instrument, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), has been principally developed from Jung's theories.
jung on the mind
Jung on the mind
  • Jung believe there were two parts to the unconscious mind: the personal and the collective
  • The personal unconscious is unique to each individual
  • The collective unconscious contains memories from our ancestors, shared by all human beings regardless of their culture.
  • He believed in examining past experiences, dreams, and fantasies for understanding the unconscious self
archetype
Archetype
  • Universal symbols that tend to reappear over time; includes models of people, behaviours, and personalities
  • Mother – nurturing and soothing
  • Father – stern, powerful, and controlling
  • Hero – courageous champion
  • Trickster – deceptive

*We feel emotionally connected to these images, which suggests that they are deeply ingrained in our psyche.

archetypes continued
Archetypes continued…
  • Symbols like stones, animals, and the circle, reflect a multitude of meanings
  • Stones – ancient religious texts
  • Animals – cave drawings and today on sports teams
  • Circle – the self, completeness, or the whole
myers briggs type indicator
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
  • The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) assessment is a psychometric questionnaire designed to measure psychological preferences in how people perceive the world and make decisions
greeks and personality
Greeks and Personality
  • First categorized by the Ancient Greeks into four types based upon bodily fluids (humors) they believed to in excess:

a.) yellow bile (choleric) – irritable character

b.) black bile (melancholic) – depressed character

c.) blood (sanguine) – optimistic, cheerful character

d.) phlegm (phlegmatic) – calm, unemotional character

jung and personality
Jung and Personality
  • Jung believed we are all either introverted or extroverted
  • Four Functional Types:
  • a.) Thinking – uses reason
  • b.) Feeling – uses emotions
  • c.) Sensation – uses the five senses
  • d.) Intuition – uses perception
  • Thinking and feeling are opposites of each other, as are sensation and intuition
  • Jung theorised that we consciously gravitated to one functional type while our unconscious gravitated to the opposite type.
behavioural psychology
Behavioural Psychology
  • Behavioural Psychologists need empirical evidence, obtained through experimentation, to understand and change human behaviour.
  • It emphasizes the importance of observable behaviours and phenomena, as well as using scientifically proven intervention procedures.
ivan pavlov 1849 1936
Ivan Pavlov – 1849 - 1936
  • He was a famous Nobel Prize-winning Russian scientist who started his career studying the digestive system.
  • psychologist and physiologist.
  • His research with dogs showed that they would drool as soon as he put food in their mouths. But he noticed that they started drooling at other times, too. When they saw a white lab coat, which he and his colleagues wore whenever they fed the dogs, they would drool.
the experiment
The Experiment
  • Pavlov knew he could get an UNCONDITIONED RESPONSE – drooling – when presented the UNCONDITIONED STIMULUS – food – to the dog.
  • To test his theory, Pavlov took a neutral stimulus – a bell – and began to ring it at the same time the dog received the food.
  • After a while, the dog began to associate the sound of the bell with receiving food, a CONDITIONED STIMULUS, since it produced the CONDITIONED RESPONSE
  • This type of learned response is knows as CLASSICAL CONDITIONING.
why was this important
Why was this important?
  • Classical conditioning is one way that nearly all experiments learn to adapt to their environment.
  • For example, some children may demonstrate fear in the waiting room of their pediatrician’s office after having received an immunization during a previous visit.
burrhus frederic b f skinner 1904 1990
BurrhusFrederic “B.F” Skinner – 1904 - 1990
  • He was an American behaviourist, author, inventor, social philosopherand poet.
  • He was concerned with only observable behaviours, not the mental processes
  • Using rats, Skinner studied how rewards and punishment to achieve a desired behaviour, which became known as OPERANT CONDITIONING
the skinner box
The Skinner Box
  • A box designed by BF Skinner that has a bar or pedal on one wall that, when pressed, causes a little mechanism to release a food pellet into the cage.
  • Inside the Skinner box, a rat is rewarded with food each time it presses the bar.
  • Within a very short time, the rat is furiously peddling away at the bar, hoarding its pile of pellets in the corner of the cage.
  • A behaviour that is followed by a reinforcing stimulus will result in an increased probability of that behaviour occurring in the future.
  • When the rat stops its bar-pressing behaviour that is called EXTINCTION