functional anatomy of the muscles of the limbs l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Functional anatomy of the muscles of the limbs PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Functional anatomy of the muscles of the limbs

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 26

Functional anatomy of the muscles of the limbs - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 809 Views
  • Uploaded on

Functional anatomy of the muscles of the limbs. Development of the limb muscles Peculiarities of the limb muscles Auxiliary apparatus of the limb muscles Differences of the upper and lower limb muscles Topography of the upper limb Topography of the lower limb

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Functional anatomy of the muscles of the limbs' - alika


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
functional anatomy of the muscles of the limbs

Functional anatomy of the muscles of the limbs

Development of the limb muscles

Peculiarities of the limb muscles

Auxiliary apparatus of the limb muscles

Differences of the upper and lower limb muscles

Topography of the upper limb

Topography of the lower limb

Weak places of the pelvis and hernias

development of the limb muscles

Development of the limb muscles

It is supposed that muscles of the limbs are developed from the cells of the ventral myotomes which migrate into the mesenchyme bud of the limb.

Muscles which are inserted to the bones of free limb with both ends form the Autochthonous group of the muscles.

Some muscles which are derivatives of migrated cells move one its end to the trunk and become inserted to it. Such muscles form the Trunkopetal group of the muscles (e.g. pectoral major and minor muscles, latissimus dorsi muscle).

The third group is developed from the myotomes of the trunk and is inserted with one end to the bones of the limb forming the Trunkofugal muscles( trapesium m., rhomboid mm., levator scapulae m., anterior serrate m).

At the lower limbs trunkofugal muscles are absent.

Trunkopetal muscles of the lower limb: greater psoas m., quadratus lumborum m..

peculiarities of the limb muscles

Peculiarities of the limb muscles

Big amount of the long muscles

Presence of big amount of muscular annexions:

- retinaculi,

synovial vagines,

synovial bursae,

tendinous vinculae,

fibromuscular canals.

localization of the limb muscles

Localization of the limb muscles

Muscles have perpendicular direction to the axis of movement at the joint.

Minimum one pair of muscles /one by one for opposite movements/ exist for each axis.

Function of each muscle depends on the its position to the axis of movement.

retinaculi of the upper limb

Retinaculi of the upper limb

  • Retinaculum flexorum
  • Canalis carpi radialis:
  • tendon m. flexor carpi radialis.
  • Canalis carpalis:
  • Synovial vagines of tendons of muscles
  • flexor digitorum,
  • tendon of m.flexoris pollicis longus,
  • nervus medianus.
  • Canalis carpi ulnaris:
  • Arteria ulnaris
  • Vena ulnaris
  • Nervus ulnaris
retinaculi of the upper limb6

Retinaculum extensorum

/6 canals transmitting tendons/

I - m.abductor pollicis longus

m.extensor pollicis brevis

II - m.extensor carpi radialis longus

m.extensor carpi radialis brevis

III - m.extensor pillicis longus

IV – m.extensor digitorum

m. extensor indicis

V - m. extensor digiti minimi

VI – m.extensor carpi ulnaris

Retinaculi of the upper limb

retinaculi and synovial sheaths of the lower limb

Retinaculi and synovial sheaths of the lower limb

Retinaculum extensorum

It presses the tendons of the anterior leg muscles to the bones

It has 2 parts:

1. Upper/between the leg bones above the malleoli/

2. Lower /distally in front of the ankle joint, Y-shaped/

- originates from the lateral surface of the calcaneus and tarsal sinus

separates into two bands:

a) superior - passes to the medial malleolus;

b) inferior – to the navicular and medial cuneiform bones

It splits into a superficial and deep layers the extensor tendons forming four fibrous canals

I – synovial vagine of the extensor digitorum longus andperoneus tertius m

II - synovial vagine of the extensor hallucis longus

III- synovial vagine of the tibialis anterior muscle

IV – blood vessels and nerve

retinaculi and synovial sheaths of the lower limb9

Retinaculi and synovial sheaths of the lower limb

Retinaculum flexorum

Passes from the calcaneus to the medial malleolus

Forms 4 osteofibrous canals:

I – synovial vagine of the tibialis posterior,

II - synovial vagine of the flexor digitorum longus,

III – synovial vagine of the flexor hallucis longus,

IV – posterior tibial artery and tibial nerve.

retinaculi and synovial sheaths of the lower limb10

Retinaculi and synovial sheaths of the lower limb

Retinaculum peroneorum

It has 2 parts:

1) Upper

- from the lateral malleolus to

the calcaneus,

- transmits the common synovial

vagine of the peroneus longus and

brevis muscles

Lower

- located on the lateral surface of

he calcaneum,

- transmits separated synovial

vagines of the peroneus longus

and brevis muscles.

differences of the muscles of the upper and lower limbs

Differences of the muscles of the upper and lower limbs

Amounts of the muscles of upper limbs is bigger

Volum and weight of the muscles is bigger at the lower limbs

Lower limbs haven’t group of the muscles pronators

Pelvic girdle doesn’t have proper muscles, these muscles are well developed at the shoulder girdle

Flexors prevail at the upper limbs, extensors – at the lower limbs.

Lower limbs have well developed group of adductors.

Muscles of the upper limbs have small surface of attachment to the bones.

At the upper limb point of effort is placed closely to the fulcrum than at the lower limb.

topography of the upper limb

Topography of the upper limb

Axillary fossa

It is seen in abduction

It is bounded: inferiorly by the greater pectoral m. in front;

by the latissimus dorsi and teres major m. – behind;

medially – by an imaginary line between borders of these mm. on

the chest

laterally – by a connecting line on the inner surface of the upper

arm.

2. Axillary cavity

Anterior wall – major and minor pectoral muscles:

3 triangles clavipectoral

pectoral

infrapectoral;

Posterior wall – subscapular m.

teres major m.

latissimus dorsi m.;

2 oppenings

trilaterum = triangular

quadrilaterum = quadrangular;

Medial wall – serratus anterior m.

Lateral wall – humarus + muscles.

topography of the shoulder girdle

Topography of the shoulder girdle

Deltoideopectoral triangle (groove) - a

Lateral and medial bicipital grooves – b, c

topography of the upper limb15

Topography of the upper limb

1. Canal of the radial nerve = canalis spiralis = canalis humeromuscularis:

between the humerus and triceps muscle

2. Fossa of beauty:

on the posterior surface of the elbow joint

3. Gluter’s triangle and line:

connect the epicondyles and apex of the olecranon

topography of the forearm

Topography of the forearm

Canal of the ulnar nerve: between the medial epicondyle, proximal ulna and origin of the forearm flexors

Canalis supinatorius: between the supinatorius muscle and radius

Pirogov’s space: between the third and fourth layers of the forearm muscles at its distal part.

topography of the forearm and hand

Topography of the forearmand hand

Elbow fossa:

laterally – brachioradial m.,

medially – pronator teres m.,

superiorly – brachial m..

Antebrachial grooves:

Lateral= radial: between brachioradial and flexor carpi radialis mm;

Median: between flexor carpi radialis and flexor digitorum superficialis mm ;

Medial = ulnar: between flexor digitorum superficialis and flexor carpi ulnaris mm .

Anatomical snuff-box

suprapirifom and infrapiriform oppenings

Suprapirifom and infrapiriformoppenings

The piriform foramen passes through the greater sciatic foramen, above and below which narrow openings remain and transmit the gluteal vessels and nerves.

slide19

Lacuna musculorum:

Above – inghinal lig,; laterally – sartorius m.; medially – arcus ileopectineus.

Lacuna vasorum:

Above – inghinal lig,; laterally – arcus ileopubicus; medially – lig. lacunare;

behind – arcus ileopectineus.

Femoral triangle:

Laterally – sartorius m.;

Above – inghinal ligament;

Medially – adductor

longus m.

Canalis adductorius:

Laterally – medial belly

of cvadriceps m.;

Medially – adductor

magnus m.;

Anteriorly - membrana

vastoadductoria.

femoral canal

Femoral canal

Under normal conditions doesn’t exist.

Walls:

Lateral – femoral vein;

Posterior – deep layer of fascia lata femoris;

Anterior – inghinal ligament and superior horn of the crescent-shaped margin of fascia lata.

There is a narrow opening in the medial corner of lacuna vasorum – the femoral ring = inlet

Laterally – femoral vein;

Anterior and superior – Poupart’s ligament;

Medially – lacunar ligament;

Posterior – pectineal ligament.

Outlet – chiatus saphenus.

canals of the leg

Canals of the leg

Grouber’s canal =canalis cruropopliteus

Extends between the superficial and deep mm. of the leg.

It gives a branch – canalis musculoperoneus inferior formed by the middle third of the fibula and the flexor hallucis longus.

Canalis musculoperoneus superior – it is placed in the upper third of the leg, between the fibula and peroneus longus muscle.

Pirogov’s canal – it is a fascial canal located between two heads of the gastrocnemius muscle.

weak places of the pelvis

Weak places of the pelvis

Obturator canal

Suprapirifom foramen

Infrapiriform foramen

Obturator Hernia: This extremely

rare abdominal hernia develops mostly

in women. This hernia protrudes from

the pelvic cavity through an opening

in the pelvic bone (obturator foramen).

This will not show any bulge but can

act like a bowel obstruction and cause

nausea and vomiting.

ischiatic and obturator hernias

Ischiatic and obturator hernias

  • Ischiatic hernias:
  • Suprapiriform hernia;
  • Infrapiriform hernia;
  • Hernia of the lesser piriform
  • foramen
femoral hernias

Femoral hernias

Femoral Hernia: It occurs when the intestine enters

the canal carrying the femoral artery into the upper

thigh.

Femoral hernias are most common in women, especially

those who are pregnant or obese.