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Ecology . The study of the interactions between organisms and their environment. 2 types of environments. Biotic – organisms Abiotic – physical factors such as temperature, precipitation, and soil. Organization of the environment. Organism – single Population- many of the same kind

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ecology

Ecology

The study of the interactions between organisms and their environment

2 types of environments
2 types of environments
  • Biotic – organisms
  • Abiotic – physical factors such as temperature, precipitation, and soil
organization of the environment
Organization of the environment
  • Organism – single
  • Population- many of the same kind
  • Community – different kinds living together
  • Ecosystem – different kinds living together (community) with abiotic factors
  • Biosphere – all ecosystems together
all life requires energy
All life Requires Energy
  • Law of conservation of energy – energy is not created or destroyed
  • Where do we get our energy?
energy pathway
Energy Pathway
  • Producers – use sunlight to make food
  • Consumers – eat producers

- herbivores = eat plants

- carnivores = eat animals

- omnivores = eat both

- scavengers = eat dead animals

  • Decomposers - break down the remains of dead organisms (decomposition reactions!)
  • See page 11 in your text book
the math of the energy pathway
The Math of the Energy Pathway!
  • There are 12,000 units of the sun’s energy available to grass at the base of an energy pyramid. Grass stores 10% of the available energy, so that energy becomes available to the next consumer, a rabbit. The rabbit a consumer of grass stores 10 % of the energy that was stored in the grass. A coyote, a consumer of rabbits, stores 10% of the energy that was stored in the rabbit. Calculate the units of food energy stored in the grass, the rabbit, and the coyote.
the answers
The Answers!
  • The grass stores 10% of the suns energy

0.1 x 12,000 = 1,200 units of energy

  • The rabbit stores 10% of the grass’ stored energy

0.1 x 1,200 = 120 units of energy

  • The coyote stores 10% of the rabbits stored energy

0.1 x 120 = 12 units of energy

we manage this energy by
We manage this energy by:
  • Food Chain – how energy in food molecules flows from one organism to the next

- notice that energy from the sun is lost at each level of the food chain

  • Food web – all the different pathways energy from food travels
  • Which is the most complicated?
food chains and webs
Food chains and webs

Food Chain

Food Web

food web exercise
Food web exercise!
  • Use your computer and graphics to construct a food web